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Pieter van Woensel index

Index to Laban Kaptein’s 3-volume edition with commentary of Pieter van Woensel, Remarks 1 (1791; “Aanteekeningen”)

This index to the 3-volume edition of Laban Kaptein, Pieter van Woensel, Remarks I (“Aanteekeningen”) is arranged according to the English alphabet, with foreign and transcription letters being given under their corresponding ‘standard letter’. For example, ç under C, ṭ under T, Å under A, (not after Z), et cetera. Both ʿ and ʾ have not been taken into account in any position.

The abbreviation ‘PvW’ stands for Pieter van Woensel.

Notice that in the original text of the edition those page numbers that refer to Kaptein’s facsimile translation of Remarks I (Part I of the Kaptein edition) are in bold. Such markings have disappeared in the present, plain HTML text. For disambiguation, the reader should consult the actual edition Part III. Also, a few, minor, changes have been made to the text of this Index of Laban Kaptein, Pieter van Woensel, Remarks, in order to better adapt it to Internet search functions.

Click for sample pages of Part I: Translation (PDF)

Click for sample pages of Part II: Commentary (PDF)

Remember, these books are self-published, so please order only directly through my website. Thank you for your understanding.


Abbas Vesim, Ottoman physician, 311
Abbreviations, see  Names,  Typography
ʿAbd Allah ibn Salâm, alleged co-writer Koran, 219, examines Muhammad, 326
Abdulaziz, son of Subhi, physician, translates Boerhaave, 352
Abdulhamid I, sultan, 45, 143, 197; allows successor education, 213f; prefers Western doctors, 238; Van Dedem’s audience, 140; revives printing, 267, 397f; institutional reform, 314f; ‘in peaceful memory’, 107; 225; 351, 372; gives rural estate to Hasan Pasha, 391; artillery corps, 409
Aberson, Louis, sea captain, 417
Abkoude, Johannes van, see  Arrenberg
Abraham, Patriarch, 190
Abro, Marcar, dragoman Dutch embassy, PvW treats his child, 72, 222; brother Diodato dragoman in Smyrna, 222
Abu Bakr, editor of Koran, 219
Abu al-Faraj, 325
Abu Hanifa, 335
Abu Luʾluʾah, (Pîrûz Nahâvandî), supposedly non-Muslim, 358
Abu Yusuf, 335
Abydos, 432
Accademia dei Lincei, 315
Accademia del Cimenti, in Florence, 315
Addington, 393
Adorno, Anselme, in dirty Alexandria, 91; on temporary marriage, 197
Adrianople, Sultan’s court away from, 33; Schweigger in wintery, 68; Lady Montagu in, 93f, and sees parade, 208; Covel’s description of Imperial festivities, 335
“Adrichem”, PvW praises Mrs. Kinsbergen’s homestead, 343
Aegean Sea, see  Archipelago
Aeneid, 427; translation by Voulgaris, 21, 476
Aesculapius, 470
Aesepus, river, 42
Agron, Pierre, becomes editor-in-chief of Amsterdamsche Courant, PvW among candidates, 496
Ahmed Bican (Yazıcıoğlu), first Ottoman cosmography traditionally ascribed to, 185, 358. See further  Dürr-i meknûn
Ahmed I, sultan, builds Blue Mosque, 59f
Ahmed III, sultan, 159; 181; 197; also poet, 257f; story about generous daughter, 419ff; begin printing press, 266; deposed, 137, 221; pivotal to building renaissance, 143; covets bibliophile’s collection, 221; wants medical state exam, 348; Ahmed’s Fountain, 367f
Ahmed IV, see  Abdulhamid I
Ainslie, Robert, English ambassador, mediates Borneman’s disputed inheritance, 146; called a fantast, schemes against Choiseul-Gouffier, conversation with PvW, 449
Air, does not spread the plague, 46f; is ‘pabulum’, 388
Aischa, 220
Åkerblad, Johan David, Orientalist, 369
Albania, southern land route to Constantinople through, 57; Björnståhl and uprising, 152
Albinus, physician, 442
‘Album amicorum’, PvW in Dietz’, 227; contributions by Petronella and Susanna Marie van Woensel in Kantelaar’s, 227, 360; PvW’s contribution in Versluys’, 228, 495
Alchemy, popular in Turkey, 253
Aleppo, consul Lannoy, 66; on women and privacy in, 110; Van der Steen, 144f; Russell, 186
Alexander the Great, defeats Darius, 42; now wise now deluded, 384f
Alexandria, 385; very dirty, 91; Baldwin, 148; glory days might return, 451
Algemeen magazijn, periodical, 62; 271
Algeria, Ottoman ~, 325; Christian slaves in Algier docks, 332
Ali Pasha, bibliophile Grand Vizier, 221
Allart, publisher, contacts with Holtrop and Irhoven, 419
Alletz, Pons Augustin, plagiarised by Robertson, 455
Alloul, Houssine, avers ‘paternalistic rhetoric’ in PvW, 11
‘Ambidubius’, see  Stadtholder
Amicis, Edmondo De, Turkish idleness and decline interrelated, 94
Ampelius, Lucius, 77
Amsterdam, 16; four times smaller than Greater Constantinople, 32; Chamber of Levantine trade, 84, 45, 65, 224; very safe city, 87; proposal drinking water supply, 92; first illuminated city, 153; City Hall, 92; Bourse, 301f, 451; Oude Brug, 314; preachers’ funerals always crowded, 416; Collegium Medicum, 432f; Jews, 172; home addresses of Raye, and PvW, 173; Westerner in Anatolia bigger spectacle than rhinoceros rider in, 179f; French Weesper Poort telegraph, 430; journeys no farther than to Haarlem give ignorant worldview, 457; Calvinist fanatics claim fatal theatre fire God’s vengeance, 338; risqué opera in, 470; PvW candidate editor-in-chief Stadscourant, 496
Amulets, cut foreskin purportedly used as talisman, 224f, cut-off penises sold dried and powdered as mummia, 335; naughty Priapus features in Turkish festivities, 180; (black) magic dance forbidden in Suriname, 190; inauspicious praise exorcised by bossom spitting, 484
‘Amurath’, see  Hekim-Bachi
Anadolu kavağı, (Hieron), 427
Anal, Anus, clysters in Muhammedan world, 114. See further  Scatology
Anatolia, PvW’s wanderings through, 199; sedition if Serail falls, 382f; half of population is Greek, 388
Anatomy, interference religious precepts, 241; in Ottoman Empire, 350f; PvW’s plea for (human) vivisection, 159
‘Andias’, 326
St. Anna, 413
Annals, the Turkish, 156, 165, 181
Ansse de Villoison, J.B.G. d’, Græcist, travels with Choiseul-Gouffier, 448
Anthemius, and Isidorus, architects of Hagia Sophia, 53
Antichrist, in Islam, 325f
Antisemitism, PvW exposes traditional ~, 67, 105ff; 308; Fiscus Judaicus in Europe, 448; 457
Antoine de Murat, see  Murat
Aphrodite, in Dutch mythological scenes, 470
Aplemont, d’, French navy captain, threatens Turks with cannon boat diplomacy, 448
Apollo, Oracle of Delphi, 27
Aqueduct, at Burgas, detailed description, 92ff, important detail in plate ‘Funeral and Wedding’, 471f, 474f; PvW proposes ~ for Sevastopol’s drinking water, 162
Arabia, purveyor of slaves to Turkey, 112; Muhammed’s ascent in, 212; Westerners less harassed than in Turkey, 127; Koranic Arabic very different from modern dialects, 476
Archangelsk, 108
Archipelago, 147; Aegean Sea, 350; Turkish fleet collects head tax from Greek inhabitants, 379; probably divided after Turkey’s demise, 382f; likely refuge Sultan after Empire’s collapse, 386; Russian squadron in, 405; Archipelagians despicable people, 406f
Archon, title for Greek prince, 407
‘Aristias’, see  Bonnot
Aristodemus, 331
Aristotle, 166; slaves have no virtues, (176), 240, 251; tutor, 256; 29; on bashfulness, 312; no genius without madness, 449
Armenians, 63; in Constantinople, 165; large houses of merchants, 67, opulent wives of rich, 434; many obese women, 184; hanged for intercourse with Muslima, 154; are not slaves in Turkey, 105ff; 110; court painters, 264; as  Dragomans; dominate fur-trade, 92; Genocide, 127; Zohrab merchant family, Sophia is Thornton’s wife, brother Constantine MacFarlane’s informant, 182; Menasi family, 264, 188; PvW’s bed adventures, 194; religious minority, 359
Armies, castrametation, 319; immorality of war, 43, 355ff; soldiers willing killing machines, 43, 278f, 101, and attracted by uniforms and medals, 382; Turkish generalissimus, 186, 219; details of Turkish units and terminology, 270–386; wonder weapons (of mass destruction), 386, 290, 356ff; Baggesen condemns barrack-styled town, 91; Ottoman Empire is a military republic, 186, and promotion based on meritocracy, 412f; Mavroyeni, though Christian, is allowed to lead Turkish, 222; Turkish reforms seek restoration of once victorious ways, 374; Republic needs experienced ~, 381; PvW’s idea for stilt walkers division, 436
Arrenberg, Reinier, publisher, PvW peruses ~ book catalogue, 24, and finds mostly useless religious publications, 211; 292
Arsenal, Turkish Imperial dockyard, 29; tree at, 56; often visited by PvW, 293; Islamic cemetery relocated for, 99; Inspector, 168
‘Ars inveniendi’, xiii; PvW on importance of serendipity, 316
Artillery, 70, 310f; anecdote by Tott, 74f; Turks are poor shots, 339, unable to guard Bosphorus, 378; they hardly practise, 308; their new Rapid Fire Force, 312; floating batteries, 286, 344ff; Russian incendiary balls, 286ff, are special weapon which might reinvigorate Dutch navy, 386; PvW impressed by Russian, 409; Russian victory taught the Turks importance of, 308; Turks very careless with fire aboard ship, 295; Turkish naval guns, 296ff; 24-pounders, 345; details of heavy batteries at Dardanelles, 352f; use of grape-shot, 355; carronade cannons, 376; Turkish incendiary arrows, 395; poison bullet, 434; cannon boat diplomacy, 448
Arvieux, d’, on wine drinking, 66; Turkish women disguised as men, 73; language skills practice with locals, 80; on waters of Constantinople harbour, 83; peeps into  Serail with camouflaged telescope, 109; exceptional case of church-bells, 117; executions, 154f; Turkish divorce practice would solve many unhappy Western marriages, 194; 325; on irreligious Turks, 358
Assemani, Giuseppe Simone, 325
Astrology, very important in Turkey, 252f; dismissed by PvW, 363f
Ata Bey, Turkish acquaintance and patient of PvW, 102f; gout treated with electricity, 425
Ataullah Mehmed, Arsenal Inspector, 168
Ateizm Derneği, Turkish Association of Atheists prosecuted under Islamist regime, 357
Atheism, among editors of  De Recensent, 21; 34; 356; religious ritualism leads to, 357f; PvW considers revealed religion ‘fairy tales’, 400; irreligious thinkers carefully erased by later Dutch elites, 491. See also  Religion
Athens, 407; Lucretius’ description of Athenian Plague, 372
Atmeydan, horse racing track, 42, 59ff; public stoning, 157
‘Atur Aman Effendi’, and the French military mission, 376
Aubert, Jean, Dutch diplomat in Spain, addressee of PvW’s mourning card, 489
Aubert, J.-B.-L., mapmaker, 424f, 429
Austria, 119, 271, 279, 364; Internuntius, 243; alliance with Russia, 279; defeat Turks at Belgrade, 320; biological warfare absent from treaties with Turks, 359; Russia much better placed to end Ottoman Empire, 381; embassy in Pera, 140; Empress  Maria Theresa, Emperor  Joseph II. See also  Vienna
Authorities, see  Church,  State
Avenzoar, 241
Averroës, 241
Avicenna, 241
Ayasofya, Hagia Sophia converted into mosque, 53f; 37; 429
al-Ayvansarayî, Hafız Hüseyin, 100, 122
Azov, military significance, 277


‘F.v.B.’, see  Francq
Baarsel, Cornelis van, map engraver, 427
‘Babbelarini’, 20, 26, 364
Babylon, 384
Bacchus, 415
Bacheracht, Hendrik, physician, 400; study in Leiden under Gaubius, etc., translated by PvW, probably colleagues in Russia, 493f
Backer, Henrick, correspondence with nephew Raye, 173, 473
Backhuysen, see  Bakhuyzen & ~
Bacon, Francis, PvW’s motto from, 316
Baggesen, Jens, rails against aesthetics of despotism, 91
Baghdad, taken by Murad IV, 260; centre of Ottoman Middle East, 384; governor only nominally subject of Sultan, 326, whose fall will profit him, 382
Bagnio, of Constantinople, 200
Bahira, (‘Sergius’), Nestorian monk, alleged co-writer Koran, 326
Bakhuyzen & Backhuysen, The Hague, auction books PvW’s estate, 489
Bakker, Pieter, sceptic of religion, 111f, 323; 328; stubborn Christian martyrs hardly deserve admiration, 460; religious deriding other beliefs forget own fairy tales, 461
Bakker, René, 11; on Van Woensel family and relatives, 28, 322, 488 (Justus); PvW and Raynal, 44; on interpolation in Remarks II, 45; 46; 73; 293; PvW’s journalism, 429; context of statistical method in PvW’s work, 446; map and details of Anatolia route, 483
Balat, (Balata), Jewish neighbourhood Constantinople, 128
Baldwin, George, English consul Cairo, 119; 144ff; Alexandria, 148; 155
Ballooning, see  Montgolfier
Baltic Sea, Russian fleet, 333
Baltimore, Lord, traversing Germany tiring for Englishman, 58; likens Mediterranean and Black Sea to two breasts for Constantinople, 102; on Bosphorus ferries, 129; Turks maintain order by law, not with force, 167; variant of slavery everywhere, 169, notorious lifestyle, slave-owner, 179; Turkish streets full of women, 191
Banat, region, 415
Baptism, Greek, 412f
Barataires, 68; definition, 110f; Petraki, 193. See also  Diplomats
Barataria, fictitious island, (124), 285
Barbaro, Niccolò, diary of Siege of Constantinople, 84
Barber, focal point of local information, 199; performs Turkish circumcision, 224; Tertullian against shaving, 399; barber surgeon, 145; anecdote, euthanasiastic Turkish, 223; Turkish army rules for facial hair, 407; do not discuss politics during neck shave, 445
Barber’s End, batteries at, 354
Barbeyrac, Jean, French Huguenot scholar, 364; 9; seminarian PvW introduced to commentaries, 437ff
Barbou, book publisher, 268
Bar Hebræus, 325
Baroen, Jacob, sentenced to tearing up his religion critique, 112
Baskerville press, 268
Basra, Bas(s)ora, 219; naked women in Euphrates surprised bathing, 184; 201
Bastille, compared to Seven Towers prison, 107
Baths, Russian and Turkish, 71f; Turkish women’s figures affected by bathing, 126, 480; PvW praises their personal hygiene, 188; 246; Timoni recommends treatment with Turkish, 434
Bayezit I, sultan, defeated by Tamerlan, 43; 67; early Ottoman libraries, 318
Bayle, Pierre, 344, 355; majority mankind is ‘heathen’, 456
Beauchamp, Pierre Joseph, Turkish captivity, 427
‘Beezemstuivertje’, Dutch coin, 479
Bekir-Agha, notorious for legal chicanes, 217. For disambiguation, see  Moralı Beshir Agha, and  Hadji Beshir Agha
Bekker, Balthasar, theologian, combats superstition, 356, 461
Bekkers, Jan, signing witness to notarial Deed of Protest following PvW’s death, 489
Belgrade, stop along the road to Constantinople, 7; strong fortress, 178; besieged, 320; Constantinople’s forest of, 39, is vandalised by Tott, 56, 427
Bélisaire, PvW and Marmontel’s novel, 323, 337
Belisarius, general, 42f
Belon, Pierre, French botanist and Orientalist, 127; is true Renaissance man, 52; Egyptians more energetic than Turks, 94; Turkish cemeteries, 99; opium, 120; on aquatic life, 132; Turkish executions, 155; ‘different countries different customs’, 166; position of slaves, 169; polygamy, 181; henna, 188f; Turkish cash payments upon delivery prevent lawsuits, 339; on afterlife beliefs, 487
Bender, strong fortress, 178; Swedish defeat at, 410
Bentham, Samuel, naval battle Ochakov, correspondence with brother Jeremy, 394f, 420; decorated, 416; conflict with Hendrik de Winter, 419f
Berbice, Slave Revolt, 175; (PvW’s estate contains) wooden idol from ~, 458; entry to colony requires permit, 468. See also  Suriname
Berckel, Pieter van, Holland’s first ambassador to United States, 417
Bergstedt, Stockholm printer, 368
Berkeley, William, governor of Virginia, 373
Bernard, Jean Frédéric, pioneer in comparative religion, 134f; most Westerners are in fact slaves too, 169; 181; Muhammed as reformer of pagan-Christian abuses, 323; 327; censored by his translator, 336; PvW and work of Picart and ~, 76, 472
Bernoulli, Johann, inventories of Russian collections, 33
Beshir, see  Moralı
‘Bestiania’, See  France
Betskoi, Ivan, PvW mentions education reformer, 367
Beys, of Egypt, 385
Bezborodko, Alexander, 400
Bible, PvW’s use of ~, his preference for Eccles. and Job, π2v, 9, 18, 17ff, 41, 108, 130, 370, 454, 487; joke about Balaam’s talking donkey in Numbers 22, 462; pun on Gospel verse (‘faith as small as a Coco-nut’), 147, and on Paul’s words in Romans 1215, 454; play with language of Canaan, 472; imaginary nonsense exegesis of 2 Kings 9, 481; better acquainted with Don Quixote, 216; both Cervantes and N.T. on his desk, 458; Knight of La Mancha and ~, 462; publicans notorious in, 73; 152f; Koran is the Turks’ holy N.T., 163; Jesus’ genealogy in Matthew 1, 210; ‘Dedication to Mr. Matthew XIII. v. 57’, 45; Two homilies on Matthew 7, 340; some verses in N.T. hostile to science, 212; bristling with paradoxes, 219f; PvW’s refers to 1 Corinthians 79 about  Sexuality, 198; in PvW’s cartoons: tumbles down, and, minister with ~ leads people by the nose, 344, 355, 458, and Bible and Acts of Synod of Dort in book pile, 365; no Evangelical Law encumbers the Turks, 361; Deut. 49 and 15 on self-preservation, 438; Bekker: devils and demons are metaphors, not real, 461
Bidloo, Govert, physician, playwright, 470
Biga çayı, river, 42
Bilderdijk, Willem, science-fiction story set in Persia, 37
Bildt, Jan van der, telescope maker, 470
Bithynia, 42
Björnståhl, 71; PvW consults ~ through Toderini, 152, who criticises Swedish Orientalist, 86; Turkish conversation practice with their women is impossible, 80; 81; his language teacher, 336; indolence of Turks, 82, their pride impedes learning from others, 94; details on Comidas’ first Serail map, estimate of population, 88; Constantinople neighbourhoods, 133; description of Swedish embassy, 144; evaluation of Cantemir’s History, 124, and Porter, 168, praises Lüdeke’s work, 182; on fur fashion, 92; meeting with  Gobbis, 102, and Greek Patriarch, 121; on Freemasons, 111; Turkish clocks, 116; Ramadan alleviated with opium, 121; executions, 156; Turks cannot accomplish major projects, 163; have bad table manners, 164; have no lawyers, or even a word for them, 168; wine taverns, 183; kaftans as token of favour, 213; Turkish libraries, 319, 351f; Dutch libraries tour, 337, 351; contacts with Antoine de Murat, 369; on enormous Turkish cannons, 432; Suez route will revolutionise global trade, 451
Black Sea, under Russian control, 330, 380f, thanks to Van Kinsbergen, xvi, 377; Bosphorus influenced by, 28f; White Sea and ~ two breasts rich in milk, 44; decline shipping-traffic, 62; free trade negociations, 141, 82; Joan van Woensel’s map of, 291f; European coastline favours seaborne assault, 340ff; PvW tells lady its black water substitutes ink, 63; Russian interests, 222; PvW and frozen coastal waters, 361, 397; Cossacks once pirates on, 430
Blaeu, Dutch cartographer, translated into Turkish, 243; States General present Russia with world globe by, 353
Blaman, Anna, Dutch writer, 455
Bleyswijk, Van, correspondence with Swildens, 141, 206
Boekzaal, literary-cultural journal, 26; digest-review of Russia considered, 341; ‘Amurath Effendi’ remembered, 377
Boer, Hendrik Jansz de, skipper, 60
Boerhaave, Herman, Karadja studied under, 120f; translated into Turkish, 243; Schreiber was pupil of, 371; PvW influenced by, 316, 344, 348f, 355; PvW’s professor Gaubius studied under, 342; 349
Bog, or Hypanis, river, 282, 335; natural military obstacle, 329
Bokken, (the Bucks), PvW visits inland Indians in Suriname, 191
Bon, Ottaviano, account of Serail visit, 87
Bonn, Andreas, physician, 309; member of Amsterdam Collegium Medicum, 479
Bonneval, manuscript report on Turkish navy integrally in PvW’s Remarks I, 389ff; 399, 402f, 425
Bonneval, Claude Alexandre de, ‘Humbaracı’, wounded, nickname, 364; grave inscription, 259
Bonnot de Mably, Gabriel, 346; PvW’s motto from, 414
Books, oversupplied market, iv, 265; ideal wrapping paper, 208; PvW wants fundamental reference works only, 315; dislikes thick, 444; sees overkill of religious publications, 211; many imported printed sermons, 456; PvW cannot afford d’Ohsson’s costly publication, 19, nor Comidas’ expensive work, 33; Turkish manuscripts both beautiful and expensive, 318, 242, 254, are sought after by connoisseurs, 268; hard to purchase, 378; Turkish printing press, 265–268; the A B C, 317, 323; (printed) ideas have great impact, 157, and revolutionary potential, 217, 464; bring benefit or mischief?, 373; Turkish incunables, 78, 411f; writer’s chair-bound existence causes unhealthy constipation, 190; Pallas Athene’s burning lamp stands on pile of, 211; some bibliophile Chief Eunuchs, 218; bibliophile Grand Vizier, 221; Holland leading in book trade, printing, 312, 319, 376; no reading tradition in Zaandam region, 313; PvW mocks state of Russian book trade, 319; Dutch attempts as censorship, 338. See also  Album amicorum,  Cartography,  Typography
Boom, Henk, 368
Boppe, Auguste, French ambassador, on status of Sultan’s wives, 85; granddaughter of, 258
Bordeaux, splendid city, 17
Borneman, (Bornman), Marie Claire, wife of Willis, whose creditors sue her inheritance, 146
Borneman, Samuel Benedict, testament, 146
Borra, Giovanni Battista, 89f
Bos, Lambert van den, Don Quixote tranlator, 450
Bosboom, Frans (François), auctions part of PvW’s estate, 489
Bosch, Bernardus, uncharitable fictitious ‘Life’ of PvW, 20, 28, 341, 343, 389, 462f; taunts PvW, 445; in revolutionary committee, like PvW candidate for editor-in-chief position, 496
Bošcovich, Rudjer Josip, 117
Bosphorus, Gibbon’s description, 23f; crossed by Darius over bridge of boats, 26f; effected by Black Sea, 28f; delightful villages alongside, 42; report on how to defend and attack ~ area, 324ff; surprise entry Russian frigate, 330f; Kinsbergen’s audacious intrusion, 377; some details about, 334ff; 343; vulnerable to invasion, 350; in Voltaire’s Candide, 367; waters blessed by Greek clergy, 405; maps of area, 427
Boulainvilliers, Henri, 327
Bourlat de Montredon, correspondence with Guys, 43; description Burgas aqueduct, 93ff, 471f; 102
Bouverie, John, 89f
Boyle, Robert, natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, praised by PvW, 351; advances chemistry and atomism in medicine, 466
Bragadino, steward of Famagusta, tortured to death, 156
Braggiotti, Rodolphe, dragoman Dutch embassy, 102; house features in panorama of Constantinople, 146
Brague, Rémi, on Europe’s unique traits, 327
Brantsen, Gerard, diplomat, 46
Braunius, Sipke, unearths the ‘Prize Papers’, 60
Brenan, Gerald, 480
Brentano, G.J.F., acquainted with PvW, 114, and possible source of confidential information, 389, 425; military advisor to the Turks, 321
Bretagne, 39
Breydenbach, Bernhard von, on wine drinking, 66; borrowed from al-Kindî, 326
Bridge, captain of packet-boat ‘The Prince of Orange’, 418
Brink, Jan ten, about PvW, 123, 211, 491
Brobdingnag, 160
Broecheler, Meike, bibliographical observation on Remarks I, 17, 21; possible backgrounds, 364; PvW’s reactions to critics, 26; his Don Quichote, 39, 116; 41, 51, 205, 210; annotated edition of chapter ‘State of learning in Turkey’, 311; 331; Lantaarn courtesy copy for Geertruida Holtrop, 495
Brouwer, Cornelis, engraver, 147, 404
Brun, see  Le Brun
Bruse, Carl, letter to captain  Joan van Woensel, 488
Brutus, 229
Bruyn, (Bruijn), Cornelis de, Dutch artist and traveller, 24, 60; carves name on Gate of Xerxes, 81; fold-out Constantinople panorama, 88; about its dirty streets, 90; White Sea and Black Sea like two milk-rich breasts for Constantinople, 102; kiosks and sofas, 117; bedlams in Manisa, 147; Turkish slavery not so miserable, 169; finds Turkish women saucy, 180; on temporary marriage, 197; 325f
Bucarest, 66
Budapest, on route to Constantinople, 57
Buendelmonti, Cristoforo, map of Constantinople, 88
Buffon, read and admired by PvW, 127, 130, 34, 61, 83; henna, 188; on circumcision, 334; a founding father of evolutionism, 466; on sterility of hybrids, 467
Buisman, Michiel, first to name PvW behind Don Quixote reworking, 116; and Life and Deeds of George of Fool Town, 314, 493

Bulgakov, Russian diplomat, translation project in Turkish captivity, 50; speaks with PvW about Ottoman painting, 264, together in quarantine on Crimea, 108; fictional story character, 108
Bulgaria, Turks call the Bulgarians robbers, 255; town of Vidin, 315, Sofia, 322; Turks allow clock tower in Plovdiv, 117; Bulgarian troops, 315; Lady Craven in, 404
Bulthuis, Jan, topographical artist, 404
Burgas, aqueduct at, 92ff, 471f; strategic importance, 429
Burja, Abel, indebted to PvW’s Russia book, 284, 446
Burman, Nikolaas, physician, medical inspector, 479
Bursa, 37; Tamerlan battles at, 43; book bazar in, 378
Burton, Robert, 51; books make good wrapping paper, 314
Busbecq, (Busbeke), Ogier Gisleen van, Flemish humanist, Ottoman Empire is military republic, 219; 415
Businello, Pietro, plagiarised by ‘Habesci’, 110, 166, 170, 197; in turn copied from others, 203; on Turkish navy, 389
Busken Huet, one of Woenseliana’s founding fathers, 19; 10, 463, 491; focused PvW had made a greater writer, 25; PvW descendant of Montaigne, intellectual appreciation for Reformation honours Renaissance, 29f; Gibbon’s influence, 78, 464; about PvW’s signature rudeness, 114, and plea for human vivisection, 159; his satiristic and melancholy nature, 370; half-stranger and simmering bachelor, 407; on PvW’s essay on biological warfare, 437
Buys, Egbert, encyclopedia by, 35, 327
Büyükdere, suburb, 37, 142; 39; death Dedel, 472
Byzantium, founded by emperor Constantine, 15; Justinian and Belisarius, 42f; fall due to consecutive worthless emperors, 275f; Trebizond last remnant, 325


Cairo, on a par with Constantinople, 385, both hotbed of plague, 105; Baldwin consul in, 145
Calas, Jean, death on the wheel sparks outrage, 158
Calendar, PvW’s use of Hijra, 20–23
Caliph, 155f; Abu Bakr the first, 220; Baghdad old residence, 384
Calkoen, Cornelis, Dutch ambassador, 79, brings along Dutch fire-pumps, 160; commissions artist Vanmour, 121, 160
Calvinoturcism, ‘rather Turkish than Papist’, 430
Camper, Petrus, physician, 115, 349
Camperdown, see  Kamperduin
Campi(s), Jacopo de, Genoese merchant, 155
Cândea, Virgil, edition of Cantemir, 124
Candia, island of Crete under Venetian rule, 383
Cannibalism, Cannibals, Turks do not eat one another, 86; Western torture more barbarous than, 159; Dutch prefer Turks over French ~, 430
Cantacuzene, John, 325
Cantemir, dynasty, 63; on decisive role ulema, 170; 184; 255; important source for PvW, 10, 170, 219; irreligious Turks, 358; contribution to Turkish musicology, 369; on how to engage the Turks, 415
Cape of Good Hope, trade threatened by Suez route, 386
Capellen tot den Pol, Joan Derk van der, 98
Capper, James, 119; 144f; 155; mention of Charlemont, 274; benefit of Turkish baths in England, 354; read by PvW, 385; on quarantine, 439
Capuchin Order, mission in Anatolia, 190
Caravanserai, vermin-infested, 210
Cardon, Antoine, engraver, 360
Caricatures, scurrilous cartoons of Potemkin, 131, and Catherine II, 388; ‘Roast Beef’ England, 393; PvW and Smies dawn of Dutch ~, 445; PvW’s ~ in modern-day exposition, 494; ~ in Lantaarn issues: descriptions by  Van Rijn, and admirer  Muller; include: thundering Cogan, 13; PvW in Turkish costume, 20, 345; revolutionaries mocked, 28, 205f, 308; featuring telescope, 41f; 113f; Lantaarn drawing copied by Kinker, 206; Pallas Athene, 210, 343; Church leads people by the nose, 344; Church, Military and Politics smother Enlightenment’s lamp, 345; Dutch Maid asleep, 365; tug of war between Dutch Seven Provinces, 428; democratic chaos about Constitution, 445; Bible tumbles down from book pile, 458; liftable, glued-on paper flaps in some Lantaarns, 28, 445. See also  Drawing
Carra, Jean-Louis, 36; plea for cosmopolitism, 53
Carriages, both sexes use stage-coaches in Constantinople, 77f
Cartography, maps of Constantinople, 67ff; by Kauffer, 84, 398; diverse maps of Bosphorus area, 84ff, 427, aerial view, 100; sketch maps showing fire-damaged parts Constantinople, 122; atlases, 376, by  Blaeu,  Hondius,  Mercator, and  De Wit; Dniester delta difficult for mapmakers, 390; Ottoman ~, 397; much in maps PvW and French Engineers identical, 424f; woodcut map of Greek village Madytos, 432
Cashmere, expensive shawls, 440
Cassandra, PvW as unwelcome, 9, 50, who tells the truth, 454
Cassas, Louis-François, painter, 367
Cassius Dio, historian, 440
Castellan, Antoine-Laurent, artist, anecdote about  Englishman, 89; telescope-peeping dragoman hanged, 109; Bosphorus scene with famous trees, and view of Gelibolu, 118; sign language in Greek household, 466
Casti, Giambattista, satirises Catherine II, 131
Castrametation, 319
Catherine II (the Great), xvi; by tradition lieutenant colonel of all guards regiments, 151; PvW in Catherine-Slav governorate, 62; libidinous life and preferences mocked, 72, 106f; abolishment capital punishment, 175; expropriation clergy, 176; grants Mufti jurisdiction over her Muhammedan subjects, 458; once praised by PvW, 205, 388, later ‘old, maggoty . . . . .’, 279; dithered instead of taking Constantinople, 331f; will not liberate the Greeks without awarding herself, 381f; orders Virgil translation into Homeric Greek, 427; Prince Repnin minister plenipotentiary of, 93; contacts and correspondence with Bulgakov, 108; requests Leiden-trained doctors, 342; her French allegedly not strong, 367; initiative for corps of water engineers, 390; hires vice-admiral Kinsbergen, 15f, 400, 332; floral monogram, 417; blames population not failing authorities for plague, 441
Cato, quote attributed to, 224; 337
Cato, Dutch periodical, 445, 479f
Catullus, books make good wrapping paper, 314
Cavalry, details about Turkish, 309; and their chaotic camp layout, 319f; way of attacking, 321; to be deployed on Domuzdere heights, 348
Çavuşbaşı, rank, 102, inaugurates recruits with slap in the face, 304
Celsing, dynasty of Swedish diplomats, 144; anecdote about, 218
Cemeteries, in Constantinople, 40f; customs evolve, 368, 486. See also  Funerals
Ceres, 415
Cervantes, see  Don Quixote
Çeşme, naval battle of, 281, 290; Orlov fails to take advantage of victory, 352
Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha, see  Hasan Pasha
Chalcedon, foundation myth in Tacitus, 27f; today’s Kadıköy, 42
Chalkokondyles, Laonikos (Nikolaos), Turkish costumes, 13; 15; opium, 120; Western discord benefits Turks, 127; dervish with stag, 136; dress of loose girl, 189; water carrier (sakka), 412
Chalotais, Messrs. La ~ in Rennes, 39
Chambers, Ephraim, encyclopedia of, 333
Chandler, Richard, tunny fishery 62f; his journey, 63; on pigs in Turkey, 74; visits John Bouverie’s grave, 90; Spanish watch-tower system, 430
Chantreau, Pierre Nicolas, borrowed from PvW’s Russia book, 447
Chappe, Claude, inventor of semaphore signalling, 430
Chardin, Jean, influenced Montesquieu, 94; on temporary marriage, 196
Charlemont, James, Turkish rudeness towards Westerners, 126; visits dervish ceremony, 135f; surprised that Turks are not barbarous, 153; streets relatively safe, 154; foregoes watching a decapitation, 155; swift Turkish justice, 339; on irreligious Turks, 358; astrology, 362; 379
Charles II, King of Sweden, 107, 218
Châtelet, Gabrielle Émilie du, scientist, translation of Newton, lady friend of Voltaire, 362
Chénier, Louis, on Turkish irreligion, 358
Cherbourg, 336
Chernyshev, Ivan Grigorievich, 400f
Cherson, Russian naval base, 282, 327, 330, 380; PvW returns from, 63; Miranda and Voulgaris in, 362; Hendrik de Winter in, 419
Chess, board game and (figurative) pieces in Islam, 418; (hoax) automaton ‘The Turk’, 474; PvW mates more than he is mated (N.B. in chess), 418
Chesterfield, 139; predicts French Revolution, 59, 217; English are least civilised Europeans, 191; women’s civilising influence on men, 193, but gynarchy is detrimental, 216; Ottoman Empire is military republic, 219
Chishull, Edmund, executions, 156
Choczim, strong fortress, 178
Chodowiecki, Daniel, artist, Calas’ farewell scene, 158; PvW borrows vignette from, 475
Choiseul-Gouffier, diplomat, Classical scholar, expects Russia to liberate Greeks, 381; acknowledges credibility problem of travelogues, 70; his printing activities, 78, 375f, 448f; about rivers silting up, 82; employs engineers, 84; travels with  Martin, 126; commissions engravings, 161; women’s bad teeth owing to chewing gum, 186; terrified by Turkish admiral’s pet lion, 224; rebukes vandalism of ancient artefacts, 317; correspondence with Lafitte-Clavé, 409; reassures monk on Patmos Voltaire and Rousseau are still alive, 464
Christians, must always give right of way to Muhammedans, 38, who basically treat them like dogs, thus PvW, 170f; cannot give evidence against Turk, 106; Turks dislike selling manuscripts to, 378; d’Ohsson witness of Turkish slaughter of, 208; Koran about relations with, 95; unhealthy habit of burials in church, 40; Turkish contempt for Western opportunism and lack of self-respect, 66; lack instinct to fight for self-preservation, 400; traditional antisemitism, 105ff; dislike Muhammedans for their strangeness, 202f; 215; discrepancy between their words and deeds, 218; quick in condemning their fellow men, 220; end polytheism’s golden age of toleration, 396ff; Reformed Christendom, Roman Catholics, 217, 65, 323f, 403; case of mixed wedding in Constantinople, 46, 425; Protestant travel writers often ridiculed and fiercely criticised Roman and Greek Orthodox, 405, 455, 465; Russians are ~ in their own way too, 289; Western military advisors to Turks enemies of Christendom, 301; fanaticised by ‘la patrie en danger’, 316; encouraged by PvW to twice rejoice, 391; small minority worldwide, 395, yet consider themselves universal standard, 456f; PvW mocks transubstantiation: water into wine and horse . . . . . into figs, 147, and relics, 303; their miracles amount to fairy tales, 400ff; ‘complete christianisation’ of Swedish Lapland, 22. See also  Church,  Religion
Chrysopolis, 27
Chrysostom, John, Church Father, mothers make children religiously silly, 475
Church, PvW against burials in, 40, 489; Hagia Sophia, 53f; excommunication, 216; Orthodox Greeks (re-)married under Turkish law risk excommunication, 196; Russian ruler must adhere to Greek Orthodox, 213; real estate clergy confiscated by Catherine II, 215; Russian icons, waters river Neva blessed, 405; falling attendance, 227f; PvW ‘proposes’ sermon prompters to assist preachers in the pulpit, profound changes in 18th c. sermon delivery, 230ff, 456; orphans’ souls fare better with Saturday bathing than Sunday, 188; individual can edify himself without, 340; Dutch ‘Socratic War’ and Disestablishment, 337f; Dutch Republic in search of broad middle, 356; ~, Military and Politics try to extinguish Enlightenment, 345. See also  Christians,  Religion
Cicero, citations, xiv, 396; 229; 178; 454; instinct of self-preservation, 365, 368; PvW salutes, 50; PvW’s anecdote of Milo’s defence by, 440
Ciceroni, PvW as city tour guide, 50, 53, and takes his leave, 83
Çiftlik, mansion, country house, 64
Circassia, many white slave girls from Georgia and, 112
Circumcision, 222ff; Canaanite tribes trimmed by intolerant Jews, 457. See also  Sexuality
Claudius, Matthias, xvif; 111f. See also  Wandsbecker Bothe
Cleeff, Van, The Hague, possible printer PvW’s  Lantaarn series, 489
Clement XI, Pope, 210
Clerc, Nicolas Gabriel, historian on Russia, physician, and the Van Woensels, 367; on human vivisection, 436; serfdom discourages procreation, 468
Clercq, Willem de, 430; studied PvW’s Russia book, 446
Climate, and despotism unrelated, 56; cultural differences not determined by, 389f; heat in Turkey affects learning, 213. See also  Weather
Cogan, Thomas, damning review of Remarks I, 13, 21, 48, 323, 341, 365, 435, 450f, 470, 482, 484; PvW’s response, 13, 25, 39, 365f, 435; insinuates PvW plagiarised Sutherland, 66; study at Leiden University, translates Dutch (medical) publications, 115; opposes view of man’s innate dark side, 139, 387; observes that German women’s sex is almost changed by hard field work, 190; praises book Ockerse, 359; indignant about disbelief in Jesus’ miracles, 462; Dutch spouse, and amazed at local swaddling mania, 475f
Colyer, Dutch ambassador, contacts with French Huguenot réfugiés, 87; 369
Comidas, dragoman, 31; plan of the Serail, 33; plate of aqueduct, 162; Bosphorus area, 427
Comnenus, see Komnenus
Comus, god of revelry, 13; PvW as follower of, 470, 484
Condorcet, Nicolas de, 455
Congo Loango, Christiaan, brought from Suriname to The Hague by Joan van Woensel, 177f
Conjectural history, PvW unconvinced of method of, viii, 392, 413, 442
Constantine, founder of Byzantium, 15
Constantine Palæologus, 16; 63, 326

Constantinople, (Pieter van Woensel and)

fictitious place of publication, 20; arrival and description, 15ff; depiction of skyline in PvW’s time, 129; map of, [16], 67f; splendid city, 17; suburbs, 30ff; population numbers, 16, 34; similar to Cairo, 385; city’s interior, 35f; the baths, 130; Muhammedans have right of way, 38; cemeteries, 40f;  Princes’ Islands; Hippodrome with monuments, 59ff; Okmeydan, 122; a Frank climbing column of Arcadius suspected of peeping at women, 110; excellent climate, 45; many chest infections, consumption, 45; plague is endemic, 46; city tour with PvW as guide, 50ff; no tower bells, 55; Bezestan shopping district, 57; book bazar, 378; Architect’s Office for building permits, 92; damaging fires and earthquakes, 61f, and fast rebuilding, 123; Greek Fanal quarter, 62ff, their former ownership now nullified, 388; Jewish quarter, 67; splendid harbour, 68f; Customs Service, 72f; constant wars cause major socio-economic problems, 153, but PvW sees order and security, 87f, 99f; low society and underworld, 167, prostitution, 189; details about troops stationed in, 304ff; analysis of military situation, 328ff; saved by Swedish intervention, 332; Russian naval surprise attack feasible, 330f; fire bombing will secure collapse, 378, 449; members of Dutch community in, 45f, 62, 72, 118, 142, 224f, 369, 425; building renaissance, 143; first street lamps, 153. See also  Arsenal,  Serail

Contant d’Orville, André, 134, eunuchs with harem, 201; 327; Turkish irreligion, 358
Çorbacı, Turkish military rank, 306; PvW called ‘ ~ ’, 306f
Cordons, and lazarets contain plague, 47; 367ff; Ottoman quarantine system, 440
Cormontaingne, Louis de, 415
Coryates, Thomas, Ramadan is not fasting but postponed eating, 65
Cosmopolitism, plea for, 3f; 99; PvW defines himself as cosmopoliet, 55; the ignorant worldview of people confined to Haarlem–Amsterdam route, 457
Cossacks, once pirates on the Black Sea, 430
Cosway, Richard, artist, portrait of Juliette Récamier, 360
Cournand, Antoine de, French translator of Toderini, 30; protests latter’s empathy for revolution, 165, and constant attacks on Tott, 77
Covel, John, at Imperial festivities in Edirne, 335
Crajenschot, J.A., publisher, 21
Craven, Lady, PvW finds her reports ill-informed, 77f, 197ff; on women’s fashion, 436; meets courteous fat Germans, 58; visits baths (in Athens), sees mostly obese women, 184, 187, 480; 35f; travels with bespoke equipment, 63; acknowledges credibility problem of travelogues, 70; cuts her name in Cave of Antiparos, 81; on Bouverie in Turkey, 89; peeps into  Serail with telescope, 109; in the Crimea, 185; women’s bad teeth owing to tobacco, 186; unsafe countryside, 404; aboard Russian frigate disguised as merchant-ship, 448
Crete, 383; Cretans’ proverbial untrustworthiness, 469
Crimea, eventually Russian colony, just like Moldavia and Wallachia, 383; high-treason during Ottoman cession of, 193; Lady Craven in ~, 481;  PvW in ~; intends to discuss ~ in Remarks’ next volume, 280, 397, 331; scarcity of firewood, 337; strategic importance in endgame by Russia, 375ff; Perekop Isthmus, 376; Tott on geology of, 82f; conquest exacted countless lives, 394; Mongols waged biological war (plague) against Kaffa/Feodosia, 434. See also  Sevastopol
Crook, S., hat-maker, former quartermaster in the British East India Company, Hendrik de Winter’s London landlord, 418
Crusades, 276
Crutta, see  Kroutta
Cryptography, 15f
Çuhadar, Ottoman footman, lackey, 408, 418
Cullen, William, physician, criticised by PvW, 349
Cuninghame, see  Van Goens
Cuthbertson, John, 361
Cyanean rocks, PvW’s excursion to Column of Pompey, 24f; 427
Cynic School, PvW disciple of Diogenes, 9, 344
Cyprus, Cyprian mats, 429


Daendels, Herman Willem, revolutionary, politician, 360
Dahak, in Iranian mythology, 325
Dajjâl, Islamic Antichrist, 325f
Dallaway, James, chaplain and physician to British embassy, French travelogues rarely truthful, 73; Tott’s comments on Turks controversial but correct, 74; baffled by talkative Turkish women, 80; Greeks’ festivity palliative for their abasement, 453; Guys overstretched analogy ancient and modern Greeks, 455; classical Greek still emulated, 477
Dalton, Richard, artist, 135
Damiette, taking of, link with  Haarlem, 84
Dané, Victoria, married to Gobbis, and Marie ~, 102
Daniëls, Carel Eduard, physician, on Turkish Boerhaave translation, 352
Danube, or Isther, river, ix, 335; Vidin, 315; natural military obstacle, 329; troops deployment, 410; 415
Danville, (d’Anville), Jean-Baptiste, cartographer, 398f
Dardanelles, 333, 350; possible sudden Russian occupation, 379; old town of Dardana, 351
Dardanos, 432
Darius I, crossed the Bosphorus by pontoon bridge, 26f; defeated by Alexander, 42
Dashkova, Princess, acquaintance of PvW, 342f
Dawkins, James, 89
Decker, Jeremias de, poet, PvW uses epigram by, 495
Dedel, Willem Gerrit, Dutch ambassador, 46, 173; Turks show disrespect to, 124; large funeral procession in Turkey, 472
Dedem, Anthony van, ambassador’s son, 73, takes Turkish lessons, his sister learns Greek, 78; both taught drawing by Melling, 78; suppresses PvW’s name, 78, 141; takes Kauffer’s map on excursions, 84, 368; about Gobbis, 102; 140; about Willis, 146; finds Brentano an intrigant, 177, and Ainslie a fantast, 449; Hasan Pasha loyal to his one wife, 178, and keeps pet lion, 224; pastor Ribe is tutor and friend, 224f; reason behind Austria’s ‘Internuntius’, 352; Turks call French deservedly liars, 365; 410
Dedem van de Gelder, Frederik Gijsbert van, Dutch ambassador, 80; journey to Constantinople, 45, 62, 140, 399; painting of audience with sultan, 140; no audience possible with two quickly deposed sultans, 368; correspondence, 142, 167f, 225, 412; ailing wife Adriana treated by  PvW, whom he dislikes, 78, 141f, 415, 425, 463; wife attends Turkish meetings disguised as man, 73
Deijl, Jan (and son Harmanus) van, telescope maker(s), 470
Deiman, Jan Rudolph, physician, 45
Deism, 111f; 250
Deken, Aagje, 17, 61; 337; epistolary novel with Betje Wolff, 461f, passim
Demerara, see  Suriname
Demeter, in Dutch mythological scenes, 470
Democracy, 137, 213, 308
Demosthenes, 407
Den Helder, PvW in, 51
De Denker, spectatorial journal, 158; against slavery, 175
Denmark, 333; 91; Danish Arabia Expedition, 328
Dervishes, famous convent near Pera, 75f; veneration of deer, 136; a Torlak tortured to death, 156; Mevlevi order of whirling, 377; tomb stelae, 486
Descartes, René, 150; Spinoza and post-Cartesian empiricism, 328, 356; Cartesians, 357; ‘different countries, different customs’, 457
Desgenettes, chief doctor to French army in Egypt, 148
Desmarest, Nicolas, 190
Despotism, and (hot) climate unrelated, 56; Mallet du Pan and Peyssonnel reject thesis of Oriental despotism, 73, 152; fearful of knowledge, 216; PvW counters criticism of Turkish, 105, 148–155, and refutes Montesquieu, 173–179; Turkish government far from despotic, 201; not even a despot can inforce personal hygiene, 187; for PvW Russian rule clearly is, 213; 433
Diderot, ‘make last king’s noose from last priest’s guts’, 30; contributions to Raynal, 44; Encyclopédie, 61, 326, inspired by Chambers, 334
Diepenbroek, merchant in Constantinople, and daughter, 369
Dietz, Jacobus, physician, PvW’s fellow student, contribution in album amicorum, 227; both recommended for mission to Russia, 343
el-Dimişḳî, translation of Atlas maior, 353
Diogenes, 300; 9; PvW on, 344
Dionysos, in Dutch mythological scenes, 470
Dioscorides, botanist, 251

Diplomats, (for the individual names, s.s.v.v.),

Ainslie; Aubert; Baldwin; Van Berckel; Boppe; Brantsen; Brentano; Bulgakov; Calkoen; Celsing; Chesterfield; Choiseul-Gouffier; Colyer; Dedel; Van Dedem; Drummond; Lord Elgin; Haga; Harvey; Heidenstam; Herbert; Hochepied; Karadja; Kroll; La Croix, Lannoy; Lello; Mehmed Said; Mustafa Agha; Oldecop; Olier de Nointel; Panchaud; Peyssonnel; Porter; Puckler; Van Rechteren; Spencer Smith; Sutton; Swart; Tor; Turnbull; Vasıf Efendi; Warner; Wassenaer Obdam; De Weiler; Yirmisekiz Çelebi Mehmed; Janissaries’ disrespect to foreign, 65; many envoys arbitrary and not helpful, 79, 81; Swildens and PvW underwhelmed by skills of, 141; drop in lucrative trade in protection papers, 174; most dealings with the Reʾis Efendi, 174; Dutch ~ targeted with Ottoman legal chicanes, 217. See also  Barataires,  Dragomans

Diseases, burial in church dangerously unhygienic, 40; plague, chest infections and consumption endemic in Constantinople, 45f; smallpox, measles, whooping cough, 46; children’s diseases, 241; Turkish origin smallpox inoculation, 434; PvW on leprosy in Suriname, 175, 468; excursus on yellow fever in PvW’s Seaman’s medical guide, 292, and about prevention venereal ~, 473; urges personal hygiene, 187, 471, 484; countries should unite and eradicate ~, 316; Ottoman quarantine system, 440; PvW’s reports on dysentery, 440ff, (370); scurvy, 494
Dissenters. See also  Remonstrants
Divan, Turkish cabinet, 160; terrified by pet lion, 198; ‘expected’ by PvW to reward his brilliant ideas with a statue, 373
Divorce, in Turkey, 138; valid reasons for Muslima’s, 201, 463; 178f; Western clergy averse to, 194ff; PvW’s article on, 470; bad marriage and ~ as metaphore for PvW’s discontinuing journey, 482
Diyarbakır, PvW’s visit and anecdote, 189f, 346
Dnieper, or Borysthenes, river, 282, 335; natural military obstacle, 329; Cherson, 380, 427; ~ Flotilla, 420; PvW in Kremenchuk, 433
Dniester, or Danastris, river, natural military obstacle, 329, 335; ‘Liman’, estuary, 390
Doctor, see  Physician
Dodsley’s Annual Register, false account about Tott, 332
Doggersbank, naval Battle of Dogger Bank, 433
Dollond, John, optician, telescope maker, 413
Dolmabahçe, valley, 41
Domuzdere heights, strategic importance, 348
Don, or Tanais, river, 335

Don Quixote, 55; (in Pieter van Woensel)

mendacious historians deserve death, 147; now wise now deluded, 384f; Turkish loanword toraquis, 119f, 394; Jesus caused more weeping than Cervantes caused laughing, 201; PvW better acquainted with ~ than with h. writ, 216; both Cervantes and N.T. on his desk, 458; PvW is Cervantista, 454, details about his Dutch reworking, 11, 25, 34, 40, 56, 316f, 323, 393 (island of Barataria), 433, 434, 440, 450, 454, 495 (appendix), 444 (preface); and posthumously reissued, 490; once helpless with laughter reading ~, 112f; Cave of Montesinos, 34, 40; Master Peter’s puppets smashed up, 116; 125; against slavery, 172; on law of nature, self-defence, 440; Russian ornamental carpet knight of the rueful countenance, 214; abuse-combatting Prophet Mahomed likened to ~, 323; swift justice among Turks, 339; Turks fond of nicknames, 364; quixotic general Suvorov, 391; artillery is infernal invention, 433; invokes Twelve Peers of France, 438; PvW’s pyramid metaphors probably from, 460. See also  Sancho Panza

Donado, Giovanni Battista, 369
Doré, Gustave, illustrations to Munchausen’s adventures, 469f
Douglas, James, translation of Guibert, 383
Dousa, (Joris van der Does), 88

Dragomans, translators, (for the individual names, s.s.v.v.),

Abro; Braggiotti; Cantemir; Comidas; Ghica; Imberti; Karadja dynasty; Kroutta dynasty; Mavroyeni; Antoine de Murat; d’Ohsson; Stürmer; Testa dynasty; humiliated by Turks, 63; noble Greeks are bridge of communication between palace and foreign envoys, 195; ‘Jeunes de langue’, 78f; clothes treated after every visit during plague, 147f; avenge their humiliation by blackening the Turks, 203; hanged for peeping at Palace women with telescope, 109; frightened by Turkish admiral’s pet lion, 224; opium to palliate palace visit, 225

Drake, James, physician, about foreskin, 223
Drama, church-bells in, 117
Drawing, and painting, figurative art (Sunni) Ottoman Empire, 263, 373, 473; Ottoman erotica, 371; portraits of sultans, 264; silhouettes, 126, 323; Melling teaches Van Dedem’s children, 78; PvW: art class essential in education, 151, 371, and on making portraits, 11f; (Serre’s) depiction of Marseilles plague, 372; various artistic Van Woensels, 371, 492; PvW personally involved in (borrowing, reworking) illustrations for his publications, 474f; fruits of his drawing pen little remembered, 491; tentative attributions to PvW, 493. See also  Caricatures,  Silhouette
Drieberge, Joannes, 28, 338
Droffelaar, Johan, PvW’s refutations seldom original, 384; 453
Drummond, Alexander, merchant, diplomat, 52, travelogue is unsuited for personal trivia, 66
Duc, see  Rochefoucauld
Duduburnu, women’s headwear, 441
Duelling, absurdity of, 168
‘Duodecimo’, miniature, model scale, 127, 316; (430)
Durest, (Du Rest), French shipbuilder in Turkey, 401
Dürr-i meknûn, first Ottoman cosmography, traditionally ascribed to  Ahmed Bican; Laban Kaptein’s ~ edition first academic publication in history to use software-‘animated’ Arabic calligraphy, 375; aviation tale, 38; defiled mosque, 75; Constantinople’s foundation legend, 80; dervish veneration of deer, 136; execution by crucification, 154; Hittites in Islamic lore, 166; eschatology, 170, (487); different religious denominations in spirit world, 170; on ointments, 185; whoredom, 189; human life span is ideally sixty to seventy years, 314; 318; old Ottoman medical vocabulary in, 350; materialists and atheists, 358; against fortune-telling, 362f; legendary night vision mirror, 432; tale about miraculous syrup, 407
Dürrizâde, dynasty of ulema, 209
Dutch, see  Holland
Dysentery, see  Diseases


Earthquakes, constant problem for Constantinople, 61, 89
Eceabat, 432
Eck, Lambert van, Dutch Patriot, 434
Eck, Otto van, about cremation, 98
Edirne, see  Adrianople
Education, medreses in Turkey, 162; importance of public, 228; diploma mills and fraud, 237; all trades require proficiency examination, 318; ordinary Greek girls hardly receive, 425ff; despotic states fear knowledge, thus Montesquieu, 216; PvW on dismal state of Dutch, 311
Efendi, Ottoman learned gentleman; as esprit fort, 54; Ata Bey, 102f; alchemy explained to PvW by, 253
Egypt, Turkish ships bound for, 292; Ottoman troops in, 315; unclear future, 383, might become the Ottoman Empire’s formidable successor, 385f; endemic plague, 105, 148; circumcision in ancient, 334; astrology among ancient Egyptians and Chaldeans, 363; Napoleon’s invasion of, 424, 427; Rosetta, 155; Suez route will revolutionise global trade, 451
Eleazar, 325
Electricity, thunderstorm effects compass magnet, 12; Turks marvel at the Electrical Machine, 251; PvW treats gout with, 425
Elgin, Lord ~, (Thomas Bruce), English ambassador, 363
Elie, prophet, role in eschatology, 325
Elphinstone, John, admiral, 431
Elzevier, Dutch publisher, 268
Emir, descendants of the Prophet, 149; 158
Emir Ali, (‘Kahveci’ ~), rebellion leader, 413
Encyclopédie, lemmata on Islam, 326; magnetism and electricity, 61f. See also  Chambers
Engineers, from France, 30f
England, as democracy, 137; Lady Montagu wishes to brand lying English politicians in the forehead, 437; is clear and present danger to the Republic, 385; First Anglo–Dutch War, anecdote, 209; Fourth Anglo–Dutch War, 11, 433; ‘Prize Papers’, 60; use of smallpox against American insurgents, 434; dragoman Kroutta, 62; envoy’s residence, 79; East-India Company, Bengal, 83; ambassador  Porter; Turkish admiral’s pet lion frightens embassy’s dragoman, 224; denoted by ‘roast beef’, 285, Hendrik de Winter in, 418; shipbuilders as military aid to Turkey, 294; Russia might convert imported merchant-vessels into troopships, 375; 382; exports scrap metal to Turkey, 116; PvW dislikes influx of English religious writings, 211, and holds George III responsible for much evil, 212; developments in pulpit oratory in, 341. See also  London
English(man), Serail description by, 32; beheld Constantinople without disembarking and left, 34; traversing Germany tiring for an, 58; naked bathing Muslima’s chances upon by, 184; anecdote of an ~ ignorant of his wife’s pudenda, 192; marriage ads, 198; Hill knows Englishwomen are not submissive Sultanas, 203; Turkish divorce practice would free many wretched British husbands, 194; dislike authoritarian behaviour, 79; fond of betting, 105; use fire engine to pump beer, 161; national hubris, 105, 165, 386; penchant for spleen, melancholy, suicide, 51; for Chesterfield the least civilised Europeans, 191; ~ is unfathomable study object, 360; dubious story that English master executed slave in Turkey, 113; PvW in Anatolia with inquisitive, 199; 333
Enlightenment, PvW is self-proclaimed lantern-bearer, 231; early Christians already attacked reason and, 399ff; roots of personal observation in Renaissance, and not ~, 52; concept of ‘Sociability’, 191; 381f; unique Dutch Republic has different, 356
Epicurus, 344
Erasistratus, 159
Erasmus, 439; portrait in Betje Wolff’s cottage, 344; against religious ritualism, 356; war is foolish, 386; delusion is dearest illusion, 450; madness of Christians’ desiring martyr’s crown, 460; genitals are Nature’s spice of folly to lure mankind into marriage, 471; PvW about ‘our Desiderius’, 483f
‘Erfprins’, shipwreck of, 416, (361).
Erpenius, (Thomas van Erpe), Orientalist, 79, 374
Errata, PvW’s (play with), 453f, 317, 457, (396)
Erzurum, PvW as doctor in, 16, 126f
Eski Fanari, 341; region suited for Russian seaborne landing, 347ff
Etesian winds, Mediterranean trade winds, 426
Ethiopia, black slaves from, 112
Eton, William, 401
Euclid, 317
Eugene of Savoy, Turk-slayer par excellence and Generalissimo of the Imperial Army, 220
Eunuchs, 105, 139ff, 182f; 306; Origenes regretted his mutilation, 402f; Moralı Beshir Agha, 201; physician blamed for Chief Black Eunuch’s death, 348
Euphrates, river, 384; bathing women surprised naked, 184
St. Eustatius, island, 285, 418
Everdingen, Caesar van, painter, 344
Evliya Çelebi, Turkish traveller and man of letters, 311
Exartesis, see  Arsenal
Executions, hanging, the wheel, 89; mendacious historians fried, 147; pound in a mortar, 159; ulema (only in theory) sacred from, 162, 184; God-ordained authorities as lovable as hangmen, 167; capital punishment abolished in Russia, 175; 183; decapitation, 155, 193; Petraki beheaded, 196; not so frequent in Turkey as rumoured, 201; in  Suriname
Eyyub Ansari, 149; 99


‘F.v.B.’, see  Francq
‘F.V.L.’, see  Leyden
Famars, Cornelis Joannes de, physician, medical inspector, 479
Fanal, Greek neighbourhood in Constantinople, 62f, 428; Turkish folk etymology fena + yer, ‘bad place’, 123; latest women’s fashion, 435; painter Menasi’s workshop in, 372
Fanaraki, 341f
Fanshawe, Henry, naval battle of Ochakov, decorated, 416; conflict with Hendrik de Winter, 419f
Fatiha, first Sura of Koran, 448f
Fatwa, 157; sultans cannot make war without, 170; 233; on permissibility of hog’s bristles, 74
Favray, Antoine de, painter, 64
Febure, Michel, saw amulet billets, 16; 111; enemas in Middle East, 114f; Turkish police exploit prostitutes, 134; Turks fond of animals, and torturous executions, 156f; details on Turkish cutlery, 164; ‘different countries different customs’, 167; Turks look like average Frenchman, 190; Grand Vizier is Generalissimo, 220; anecdote about burial rich, loose Muslima, 487
Feith, Rhijnvis, exo-planetary parable, 37
Fénelon, François, PvW subscribes to idea of world league, brotherhood, criticism of autocrats, 323;  Télémaque
Fenerköyü, (Rumelifener), 427
Ferrière Sauvebœuf, 40f; 50; 61; seedy places profit Turkish authorities, 75; PvW addresses his misunderstanding of kiosk, 76, and unlikely description of veiled women, 125, and wrong information on palace education, 214; attributes improbable skills to sultans, 82; inaccurate about privileges, 111; on Sultan’s investiture, 152; exaggerates an already tall tale about lion, 199f; 217; many obese women, 184; story about a Janissary mutiny, 322, and about Russian surprise entry into Bosphorus, 330; plea for cosmopolitism, 53, denounces religious hatred, 464; on women and privacy in Aleppo, 110; many shared topics between PvW and, 100; 415; critical as abolitionism targets Negro slavery, but never white slavery in Turkey, 175; on Turkish navy, 389
Ferriol, Charles de, 135; 369; Raye copied from plates in ~, 473
Fielding, Henry, composer, 393
Finland, Russo-Swedish war, 287, 177; naval battle of Rochensalm, 417, 421f
Fires, plague Constantinople, 61, 89f; fire fighting and equipment, 90f; destroyed Turkish state archives, 185; carelessness on Turkish warships, 295; lethal animals housed in tindery Sultan’s menagerie, 224; fire bombing will secure surrender Constantinople, 378f ; Paramaribo archives partly destroyed twice, 177, 490; Dutch Navy archives partly destroyed, 392, 490f; safety measures in Russian theatre, 434; Calvinist fanatics claim fatal theatre ~ God’s vengeance, 338
Fish, Ichthyology, 132. See further  Food
Flachat, Jean-Claude, Greeks despised by Turks, 93, who take pride in ignorance, 95; about enemas, 114; Turks can tolerate more opium thanks to their strong coffee habit, 120; tales about barbarous Turks are unjust, 153; aqueducts, 163; sexual provocations by Turkish women, 180; epilation, 186; ~ is friendly with Chief Black Eunuch, 218; anecdote about euthanasiastic Turkish barber, 223; weak Greeks need outside help for liberation, 464
Flavius Josephus, 459
Fleet, Turkish admiral, 191f; ensign of Turkish ~, 416; partly destroyed at Çeşme, 281, 290, 352; dismal state of Turkish, 281–302; naval battle of Ochakov, 283ff, 394, 416f, 355; sea battle at La Hogue, 295; Turks hardly have charts, cannot navigate, 292f; vigorous navy indispensable, 301; Constantinople under direct threat of Russian, 330ff; Russian Baltic, 333; special attack vessels, 286ff; Russian incendiary balls will destroy any, 289f, which weapon might reinvigorate Dutch navy, 386; the sinking of block ships, 335; war shallops and barques as landing vessels, 341; Russians might convert imported merchant-vessels into troopships, 375; first word Dutch babies should learn is ‘warships!’, 199; Battle of Dogger Bank, 433; astrologers set day launch Turkish man-of-war, 363; Dutch Navy archives partly destroyed by fire, 392; naval battle of Camperdown, 397; trained Turkish navy doctors, 399; Turkish flag signals, 430; succesful Turkish navy reforms thanks to physical distance from intrigues, 403; navy officers ill disposed to obey army personnel, 420; cannon boat diplomacy existential thread to inflammable Constantinople, 448; PvW’s proposal of ‘rental wives’ for marines, 198ff, 457. See also  Ships
Fock, Hermanus, artist, work for PvW, 475
Fokke, Simon, engraver, 472
Folkema, Jacob, artist, 135
Fontenoy, battle of, 274
Fonton, Charles, 369, 376
Food, tunny fishing, 13; supplies for Constantinople, 44; Grand Vizier was once rice dealer, 412f; Russian wars drive prices up, 44, 62; disgusting ~ hygiene, 471; Turks hardly eat fish, thus PvW, 73f, 97ff; inspectors for, 229; against water drinking and dreary, 58; PvW introduced to buttermilk and yoghurt, 147, 407; bachelor PvW cooks his own meals, 407; dessert recipe, 165; oven for baking bread, 478; PvW proposes heating stove and cooking stove in one, 478; English diet makes them strong nation, 393;  Hoornsche-wortels. See also  Metaphors
Footnotes, see  Typography
Foreest, Pieter van, physician, 467, 282B
Forsskål, Peter, Danish Arabia Expedition, 328
Fourcroy, general, 376, correspondence with Lafitte-Clavé, 429
France, is clear and present danger to the Republic, 385; PvW about the French, 7ff; their self-complacency, 19, and mannerisms, 131; insipid water drinking, 58; gallantry, 136; Don Quixote invokes Twelve Peers of ~, 438; fond of showy things, 300; uncritical chauvinistic, 173, 389; fight for the king, 386; love broad statements, 178; lack of discipline and cleanliness, 11f, 38f; torturous executions, 89; promenade of Rennes, 39; PvW warmly received by French merchants in Smyrna, 14, many live in Galata, 74; Huguenot réfugiés worship at Dutch embassy, 87; French embassy, 80; its ambassadors expect blind obedience, 139; ambassador  Choiseul-Gouffier, and his printing press; Turks call the French cunning foxes, and liars, 255; Ottoman envoys to, 265; battle of Fontenoy, 274; military and naval aid to Turkey, 294, 302, 308; 333, 376, 423ff; likely to occupy parts of Archipelago after Turkey’s demise, 382f; 18th c. French pictorial art of Levant, 473; PvW dislikes influx French religious writings, 211; he predicted French Revolution, 9, points out its roots, 179f, 373, its sobering aftermath, 168, 324, and evil without end, 212; 346; warned against ‘French freedom’, 445, and fallacy of Revolution’s “Equality”, 210ff; deliverance-from-chains rhetoric upsets his stomach, 217; he considers windy verbiage hallmark of a literal translation from French, 453; mocks Republican Calendar, 21, and rejects propaganda that pre-revolution Holland was hell, 152, 176, whereas unqualified people now run and ruin the country, 165; ~ is ‘Trojan Horse’ which occupies Holland (‘Bestiania’), 22, 484, a fanfaron beast of matchless flatulence, 113, 462; ‘zich ontbestianianen’, 55; adversary Bosch: ‘Woenselius’ is Doctor of Navy of Bestiania, 479; Jacobins disapprove female political influence, 216; oxymoron of ‘revolutionary catechisms’, 320; French National Assembly declares sovereignty of the people, 373; Dutch destroy French telegraph warning system after liberation, 430; occupation era suppressed in Dutch national consciousness, 491f. See also  Paris
Francq van Berkhey, Johannes le, against burials in church, 97, 426; PvW dislikes licorice taste of writings ‘F.v.B.’, 426; plates in, 472
Franeker, (Frjentsjer), University of, 347
Franklin, Benjamin, mention in PvW, 62
Franks, Westerners, 47; less exposed to Turkish reprisals than minorities, 68; live mostly in Pera district, 76; ladies peep at passers-by from windows, 77; plague hospital for, 83
Frederick the Great, 256; Voltaire corrects his French, 257; more than once on brink of defeat, 274; read by PvW, 368, and cited as opponent of slavery, 172, and tyranny, 204; one legal system for Prussia, 215; dislikes general Laudon, 381, and Joseph II, 382
Fredrikshamn, (Hamina), 421
Freedom, of expression, Holland safe haven for different opinions, vi, but Dutch clergy seek to end, 227ff
Freemasonry, 250; 111;  Claudius;  Holtrop
Frémeaux, Dutch resident in Smyrna, 14; praised by PvW, 140
French Revolution, see  France
Frescarode, Jean, apothecary, pharmacies inspector, 479
Friderici, Jurriaan François, governor of Suriname, 176
Frieseman, Hendrik, collaborator of  Van Kinsbergen; a reworked Dutch translation of tragedy Calas, 158; translation (of Thunmann), 400; plagiarises Tournefort, 423
Fuchs, Georg von, director of general Suvorov’s chancery, 391
Funerals, Turkish cemeteries more hygienic than Christian burials in church, 40; of Amsterdam ministers always crowded, 416; Guys’ description of Islamic, 444ff, and his plate ‘Funeral and Wedding’, 162, partly reworked and borrowed by PvW, 471f, 474f; on Islamic beliefs surrounding, 486f; Dutch burial customs, 426; PvW buried inside church against his convictions, 489. See also  Cemeteries


‘Mr. G.’, see  Goll
Galata, 30f; stroll through, 72ff; 86; 200; Grand Vizier once run grocery store in, 317; high ground enables peeping into  Serail with telescope, 109; conflagration, 160
Galen, humoral theory, 240; 466
Galland (Galand), Antoine, Orientalist, 79; preface to Herbelot, 152; list of 166 things Turks do differently, 93, 114, 116, 339; tales about barbarous Turks are unjust, 153; ‘different countries, different customs’, 167; Turks prefer corpulent women, 184; Turkish sea charts, 398; chess, 473
Gallipoli, see  Gelibolu
Gallitsin, Prince, 342
Gardens, Turkish and Dutch design very similar, 55f
Gariel, Charles-Marie, physician, acknowledges PvW’s contributions, 350
Garnier, ‘horlogiemaker’ ~ survives Marseilles plague, 48; 305, 307
Gaubius, H.D., physician, Leiden professor, recommends pupil PvW for Russia assignment, 342
Gelibolu, 14; Castellan’s town view of, 118
Geoffrin, Marie-Thérèse Rodet, Parisian salonnière, 463
St. George, dragon slayer, role in eschatology, 325; Russia, Knight’s Cross in the Order of, some material details, 416; for Van Kinsbergen, 44, Hendrik de Winter, 286, Bentham, Fanshawe, and Nassau-Siegen, 419
George III, PvW rails against, 212
Georgia, white slave girls from Circassia and ~, 112; Turks call the Georgians lice-crushers, 255
Georgius de Hungaria, 358
Gerlach, Stephan, Tübingen would fit into the Serail, 110; Turkish executions, 155f; aqueducts, 163; Turkish–Persian animosity, 170; advises Orthodox preacher to use modern Greek, 477
Germ, contagious diseases contain, 46, how to weaponise the plague, 356ff; old clothes can preserve plague’s, 443
Germany, German poem, ii; a German will prefer route through, 8; over 10,000 authors, 210; but many write dreary, voluminous books, 33; Turks call the Germans proud blasphemers, 255; about Dutch and German languages, 426; not highly regarded in Republic, 164; PvW dislikes influx German religious writings, 211; German allies help Turks with ethnic cleansing during and after First World War, 433
Ghica, princely family in Wallachia and Moldavia, dragoman dynasty, Grigore II, 128; Alexandre, beheaded, 128, his city palace becomes mansion Willis family, 146
Ghistele, Joos van, making will before Levant journey is prudent, 89; about Turkish cemeteries, 99; on executions, 157; temporary marriage, 196f; Muhammedans and science, 312; borrows from Breydenbach, 326. See also  Zeebout
Giaour, Turks despise others as ‘infidels’, 220; 334, 378
Gibbon, indebted to  Middleton; description of Constantinople, 22ff; 30; on governments, 167; on pernicious effects of Christendom, 396ff; great influence on PvW, 22, 455, 403
Gibraltar, Strait of, 430
Gijn, Simon van, collection ‘Atlas van Gijn’, some extremely rare prints possibly by PvW, 493
Gilles, Pierre, on Turkish seafood, 165; major source for Della Valle, 432
Glazemaker, Jan Hendrik, Dutch translation of Rycaut, 169, 197
Glover, Thomas, on Turkish executions, 155
Gmelin, Johann Friedrich, PvW mocks unnamed, 33f
Gobbis, Filippo, 45, physician to Sultan, 141f; 202; 238f; 425
Goch, Matthias van, much expanded translation of Salmon, 65, 114, 431
Goede, Willem, proposal for crematorium, 98
Goens, Rijklof Michaël van, 342; 373; acrid fairytale, 481, 484
Gogel, Alexander, cites ‘Amurath’ (PvW), 206; 496
Golden Horn, 28
Golius, (Jacob van Gool), Orientalist, 79, 374
Goll, blind art collector, 141; 305, 308
Gönen çayı, river, 42
Gönüllü, Turkish (military) volunteers, 316
Goudriaan, A.F., report on Wieringen quarantine with PvW, 288, 440f
‘Goudsbloemen’, 22
Grand Vizier, must immediately answer fire calls, 90f; makes money selling privileges, 111; can have modest background, 131, 412f; Köprülü, 154; inheritance falls to Imperial treasury, 188f; story about Halil Pasha, 191f; commands Turkish armies, 317; Koca Sinan Pasha is Generalissimo, 219; letter to Pasha of Baghdad, 326; bibliophile Ali Pasha’s collection coveted by Sultan, 221; Halil Hamid Pasha beheaded, 222; commander gunner corps, 410; ahin Ali Pasha, and Koca Yusuf Pasha, 412; galley of ~ hoists green flag, 430
Grandon, see  Hochepied
Granicus, river, 42
Grave van Bijland, sea captain, 423
’s-Gravesande, Willem Jacob Storm van, Dutch scientist, correspondence with Voltaire, 86
Gravina, Federico, Spanish sea-captain, 90; Muhammedan purity laws over-detailed, 112; impressed by fast rebuilding of fire-damaged neighbourhoods, 123; on Jewish inhabitants, 128; white eunuchs, 143; Sultan’s investiture ceremonies, 204; (un)createdness of Koran, 330
Greaves, John, 87
Greek language, etymology of madrague, and seine, 62f; Hippodrome, 60; background of Turkish loanwords efendi, 111, fener, 427, liman, 390, rusma, 186; Greek inscription on Zaandam bookery, 207f; etymologies otiose in sermons, 226, 481; several Constantinopolitans still skilled in Classic, 426; Porter’s wife fluent in, 147; the ~ Question, 464; on Greek oaths and swear words, 469; of special interest to many travellers, 477. See also  Typography

Greeks, about the, 387–452; (Pieter van Woensel in Remarks (Aanteekeningen) on the Greeks in Turkey)

humbled existence in Fanal quarter, 62ff; must always cede passage to Turk, 93; elite often  Dragomans; their houses and interiors, 428ff; half of the population, 388; ethnic cleansing, 433; Grecian ladies peep at passers-by from window, 77; ordinary girls receive little education, 425ff; splendid women’s clothes, 434ff; to praise girl’s beauty is inauspicious, 440; tavern servant hanged for murder, 89; defend their own case in Turkish courts, 103; risk excommunication if (re-)married under Turkish law, 196; are not slaves in Turkey, 105ff, but certainly continually suppressed, 406f, and must pay head tax, 110; called rams without horns by Turks, 255, who can exploit their intrigues too easily, 465; mutual massacres, 395; usual suspects of sabotage in (forced) shipbuilding for Turks, 402; love music, singing, dancing, 261, 412ff, 422f, perhaps to forget their abasement, 453; PvW dances with skippers in Sevastopol, 423; fond of pomp and show, 428; loudly lament their dead, 451; swear and curse a lot, 410f; proverbial untrustworthiness, 411; make no positive impression on PvW, 392, 406f; contrast with dignified Turks, 388f, 419, 451; Ottoman pilots and steersmen mostly, 282, 424f; look to Russia for liberation, 276, 279f, 380f, 405; treat their domestics worse than do the Turks, 407f; a modern Greek tale, 409f; Choiseul-Gouffier favours Greek independence, 449; will need a revolution to be free, 464; perhaps Greek Renaissance in New World, 465

Grelot, Guillaume, 100; joke about risking circumcision, 192; 326; 336; paramount aspect of Islam is exteriority, 357
Grifier, Jan, artist, 88
Grimmelshausen, Turkish meritocracy’s merits, 413
Groen, Pieter, journey to Dutch West Indies, 468
Grosvenor, Edwin, visits Gül Camii, 100
Grotius, quoted as a disclaimer in Latin, and Dutch, π1v, xix; PvW rejects blind obedience to sovereign, 165ff; read by PvW on law of nature and self-preservation, 360ff; 30; in Barbeyrac’s commentaries, 357–368; 30; quoted in Remarks II, 40; 344, 355
‘Grovianussen’ (Louts), PvW’s description for the uncouth Dutch, 191
Gudenus, Philipp Franz, artist, 144
Guer, Jean-Antoine, 112; 126; 336
Guibert, Jacques A., 274
Guillet, George, 485
Guinea, PvW against Dutch slave trade, 112
Gustaf III, sends Swedish officers to Turkey, 177
Guys, Pierre Augustin, decries petty patriotism, 53; 44f; on opium eaters, 59; ichthyology, 132; description of Burgas aqueduct, 92ff, 471f; 112; PvW borrowed text on Sultan’s position, 154–161, and Turkish funeral, 444–451, and (part) of plates, 471f, as well as most information on Greeks, 391ff; PvW sometimes disagrees, viii, 392, 413, 429; depends on Cantemir on Turkish music, 369; Roman Catholic writer’s indignation about Greek superstition amuses Lutheran Lüdeke, 465; analyses resemblances between ancient and modern Greeks, 485, but PvW unconvinced of  Conjectural history
Güzelhisar, ancient Magnesia, 90


‘H.H.C.’, 427
Haan, Johannes de, signing witness to notarial Deed of Protest following PvW’s death, 489
Haarlem,  Pieter van Woensel hails from; only half of population church member around 1620, 322; factory life deforms inhabitants, 129; size of Serail equals greater part of, 110; Diogenes searches honest man on market ~, 344; Teylers Museum, 361; ignorant worldview result of journeys no farther than Amsterdam, 457
Habesci, Elias, writer (plagiarist), 52, 170, 203f, 389; PvW distrustful of, 118f, 136, 140, 144ff; 149f, 152; makes addition, 166; Western clerk is also a slave, 169; anecdote about yellow slippers, 174, and Frenchman with Turk’s wife, 194; 197; 213; 411
Hadji Beshir Agha, powerful Chief Black Eunuch, bibliophile, 218
Hadji Khalifa, see  Kâtib Çelebi
Hadji Pasha, Turkish physician, 241
Haeften, Reinier van, Dutch ambassador, sketch maps showing fire-damaged parts Constantinople, 122; 140; 145
Haen, De, physician, PvW disagrees with, 47; on plague, 372
Haersolte, Jan Willem Simon, politician, comrade-in-arms of Hendrik de Winter, both survive shipwreck, 416f
Haga, Cornelis, first Dutch ambassador to Constantinople, 79; brings precious gifts along, 109, 352
The Hague,  Pieter van Woensel in ~
Halbertsma, Joast Hiddes, secular Biblical philology, 328; a founding father of Woenseliana, 13f; 19f, 328, 492; PvW’s accident and death, 487; finds PvW exceptional, 50, as well as contrary, 56; on PvW’s artificial teeth, 186f, and attending of The Hague court circles, 206
Halil Hamid Pasha, Grand Vizier, 191f
Hall, Maurits van, writes biography of friend Van Kinsbergen, 20, 45; uses duly referenced material from PvW’s Remarks, 448; 496
Haller, Albertus, physician, 212; befriended with Schreiber, 442
Hamelsveld, IJsbrand van, his ideas discussed by PvW, 154, 340; makes Tott translation with additions, 73, 76, 332; 198; against Freethinkers, 111
Hamilton, Gavin, artist, 90
Hanafi School, legal system of Islamic Law in Ottoman Empire, 178
Hannibal, ashes, 42; Postel feels Turks have hannibalic greed for conquest, 216
Hanou, André, role of PvW’s footnotes, 10; 18, 21, 24, 28; on the role of fairs in PvW’s work, 91; 113; 134; 200; on PvW’s abbreviations, 205f, 308; about attack on PvW in Cato, 479
Haraç, head tax paid by non-Muslims, 109
Harem, 33; PvW’s access to private, 117f; actually a rare phenomenon in Turkey, 118ff; 133ff; the Lady Chamberlain, 142; hierarchy, 85; mullahs envy influence of, 216
Harris, John, encyclopedist, 334
Hartsinck, and Suriname, 46
Harun al-Rashid, Caliph, 320; 335
Harvey, Daniel, English ambassador, 358
Hasan Pasha, Turkish admiral, 191f; has pet lion, 198ff; naval battle of Ochakov, 281ff; loyal husband to one wife, 178; rewarded with rural estate by sultan, 391; his protégés, 412
Hasselquist, Fredric, naturalist, 70, 98f, 127
ḫaṭṭ-ı şerîf, Imperial decree, for printing press, 267
Hausdorff, silhouettist, 416
Hausleutner, Philipp, German translation of Toderini, with supplement, 369
Hayne, J.C.G., 220
Hayrullah Efendi, sultan’s physician, 242
Hebrew language, Hebrew etymologies otiose in sermons, 226; esoteric, Kabbalistic connotation, 14; process of desacralisation, 328, and Christian Hebreism, 334. See also  Jews
Hecataeus of Abdera, historian, 312
Heidenstam, Swedish diplomat, contacts with and source on PvW, 19, 81, 118, 140f, 223; contacts with Brentano, 177; cannot save Petraki’s life, 193; on Lady Craven, 36; 425
Hekim başı, title of Turkish chief physician, 141, 237ff
Hekim-Bachi Amurath-Effendi, PvW’s pseudonym, 27, 201; as alter ego in PvW’s cartoons, 20, 345; still remembered as, 206, 377f, 490, 495; and as ‘Hadji’, 141; presentation inscription as ~, 495

Hellespont, see  Dardanelles
Helvoetsluys (Hellevoetsluis), Munchausen enema story, 115; PvW inspects navy hospital, 288, 293; takes measures for dysentery infected galleon, 441; Hendrik de Winter in, 418
Hemert, Paulus van, 28; nephew of Irhoven, 419
Hemsterhuis, Tiberius, and the Schola Hemsterhusiana, 328
Henoch, 325
Herbelot, indebted to  Kâtib Çelebi’s work, 329; Turks also use solar-based calender, 22; studied by Toderini, 31; Galland’s preface to, 79, 330; comical opium anecdote, 120; Turkish scientific achievements are underrated, 153; on temporary marriage, 196; used only once by PvW, 220; 206, 325; 329f; 350; 362
Herbert, Peter Philipp, Austrian diplomat, 119, 243; meeting with Miranda, 126
Herbert, Thomas von, Austrian interpreter, 352
Herculaneum, library and ruins of, 317
Heron, Robert, English translator of Niebuhr, 80, censored and changed the text, 178, 184, 335
Herophilus, 159
Herschel, William, astronomer, telescope maker, 41, 470
Hesiod, already studied by philologists in Antiquity, 328
Heyden, Jan van der, inventor and artist, reflector lamp, 153; fire-pumps, together with brother Nicolaes, 160
Heyman, Johannes, Orientalist, visits Anatolian Greek village, 62; on medicine, 121; trade in Smyrna, 133; Turks prefer corpulent women, 184, many women have bad teeth, 186; travel notes published by nephew, 475
Hezarfenn, Ottoman historian, and cartography, 353, 358
Hieron, ancient, 427
Hilair, Jean-Baptiste, artist, palace view, 129
Hildebrand, Camera Obscura, 162
Hill, Aaron, 87, claims he saw Serail’s interior, 87; escapes knife fight, 93; Western discord benefits Turks, 127; chases away pederast, 133; Muhammedans come in good and bad ones too, 150; on execution in pounding mortar, 157f; on women’s epilation, 186; baths, sex, and wine spoil us, 187; Turkish divorce practice would benefit England, 194; jocular imagined bed scene, 203; Turkey is meritocracy, 208f; swift Turkish justice, 339; changing funerary customs, 486
Hinlopen, Gerard, drawing of Pompey’s Column, 81, and of triple bronze snake in Hippodrome, 122; Constantinople like beautiful woman rotten inside, 90; tomb of Sultan Suleyman, 99; peeps into  Serail with telescope, 109; Turkish compassion for animals, 157; impressed by Ottoman aqueduct, 162; visits the baths, 187; Smyrna anecdote about Anglo–Dutch animosity, 209; anecdote about possessive Turkish men, 355; borrowed from Della Valle, 432; subjected to indecent swearing by Turkish women, 469
Hippocrat, (Hippocrates), 240, 243; 312
Hippodrome, see  Atmeydan
Hobbes, Spinoza more fundamental to modernity than ~, 328
Hochepied, consul for Holland in Smyrna, 13f; praised by PvW, 140; letters end up as ‘prize papers’, 60; daughter Catharina Anna first actress in Muslim world, 72; Porter married to a, 147; 425
Hofstede, Petrus, orthodox Calvinist and bibliophile, 337
Hogenacker, Arent Corneliszoon, 374
Hogendorp, Gijsbert Karel van, Dutch statesman, old comrade-in-arms of  Hendrik de Winter, 392, both survive shipwreck, 417f, their correspondence, 419; acknowledges PvW’s predictions, 446, 490
La Hogue, naval battle of, 295
Holberg, Ludvig, writer of dystopian satire, 91, 453
Holdermann, Jean Baptiste, his Turkish grammar becomes collector’s item, 78

Holland, as democracy, 137;

role of religion, 321f; Disestablishment, equal rights for Jews, 338; nobility few and not highly regarded, 209; safe haven for different opinions, vi; radical Enlightenment, 200; unique Republic has different Enlightenment, 356; leading in book trade, printing, 312, 319, 376; its population, 24; PvW’s keen interest in demographics, statistics, 459; PvW finds the Dutch inert, 161, and unsociable, 191, born jurists full of chicane, 161f, 339; First English War, 209; Fourth English War, 11, 433; Dutch cleanliness, 11f, 313, unlike personal hygiene, 127, 471, 437, 484; swaddling mania, 424; Turkish gardens much resemble those in Zaandam, 55; Turkish ships resemble Zaandam flutes, 295, and Turkish dining table Dutch tea stove, 96f; Dutch and Turks both resist innovation, 91; Dutch dislike authoritarian behaviour, 79; members of Dutch communities in  Constantinople, and  Smyrna; embassy, 80; pastors to the legations, 224f; allegedly Dutch use temporary marriage in Turkey, 197; about Dutch and German languages, 426; different vocabulary in the North or South ~, 213f; Malay loanwords, 410; Turks call the Dutch cheesemongers, 255; battle of Fontenoy, 274; dangerous situation of the too small Republic, 275; trade vital, need for a university chair in economics, 451; Dutch pilots for Russian ships, 292f; 333; Russians might convert imported merchant-vessels into troopships, 375; export to Turkey of scrap metal, 116, and fire-pumps, 160; authorities become less dogmatic about divorce, 194; dismal state of education, 311; in the Year 2440, 316; first study of Dutch national character, 359; ice skating, 360f; Republic needs experienced army, 381; Bulthuis’ visual archive of 18th c. ~, 404; liberated Dutch destroy French telegraph warning system, 430; funerals in, 472; coordinates, 484

De Hollandsche Spectator, periodical, 317
Holtrop, Geertruida Helena, Lantaarn courtesy copy with PvW’s presentation inscription, 495
Holtrop, Jan Steven van Esveldt, holds copyrights of Remarks, 495
Holtrop, Willem, PvW’s publisher, 19, 21; PvW dies owing debt to, 292, paid in full from proceeds estate, 489; encyclopedia project by Freemason ~, 315; contacts with Irhoven, 419; 454
Holtshey, Johan George, engraver, 115
Holtzmann, Wilhelm, 57
Homer, already studied by philologists in Antiquity, 328; Odyssey, translation by Horace, 360; ‘la querelle d’Homère’, 373
Homosexuality, see  Sexuality
Hondius, Jodocus, cartographer, 353
Hooft, Daniel, secretary of Amsterdam Levantine Chamber of Trade, recommends PvW, 142; nephew of Van Kinsbergen, 307f
Hooft, Hester, rich widow of banker George Clifford, remarried to Van Kinsbergen, 308; 343
Hoogentoren, see  De Moerloose
Hooghe, Romeyn de, artist, 157
Hoogstraten, David van, physician, author, PvW dislikes Aesop translation, 495
Hoola van Noten, Dirk, Dutch translator of Montesquieu, 212, (215)
‘Hoornsche-wortels’, 22; 307
Horace, Latin citations, xii, 2; 68, 230, 234, 365, 454, 447; after translation of Homer, 250; 277, 347; nature and nurture determine human behaviour, 390; 13, 25; one of PvW’s favourite writers, 56, 323, 390; 450
Horoscopy, PvW gives ~ for Ottoman Empire, 373ff; and for ‘Commonwealths’, the Republic, and Russia, 444ff
Hospodars, Greek princes to Wallachia and Moldavia, 63, 66; 102; Mavroyeni, 195
Hottinger, Johann Heinrich, Orientalist, 79, pioneer of secular philology, 328
Houbraken, Arnold, 373
Houguer, in Constantinople, 46
‘Hout-rups’, PvW on (Lyonet’s) meticulous dissection of, 34
Hovius, Jacob, physician, 45
Howe, Richard, 430
Hume, David, praised by PvW, 210
Humphreys, Henry, English merchant, sues insolvent Willis, 146
Hungaria, Georgius de, 136
Hungary, Turkish printing press established by renegade  Müteferrika, 266, 411; countless Hungarians in Turkish slavery, 174
Hurd, William, 15, 17, 134; Islam enemy of knowledge, 320; Muhammed’s historicity pending, 323; rejects fabulous Christian claims against Prophet, 327
Hussars, Kurds employed as, 315
Huygens, Constantijn, 344, 355


Ibn Rushd, 241
Ibn Sina, 241
Ibn Zuhr, 241
İbrahim, sultan, 165; has peeping dragoman with telescope hanged, 109
İbrahim Efendi (‘of Bebek’), and French military mission, 376
İbrahim Müteferrika, Hungarian renegade, 411; founder of Turkish printing press, 266; Arabic-Turkish dictionary, 374, map of Black Sea, 397; advises Muhammedans to emulate, not despise the West, 94; people revolt if State neglects its duties, 221; equipment and discipline decide modern warfare, 386, 411f
İbrahim Pasha, (‘Nevşehirli Damat’ ~), Grand Vizier, 412
İlhâmî, nom de plume of sultan-poet Selim III, 368
Ilyâs, 325
Imberti, Calavro, dragoman, 31
Indians, PvW visits ~ in Suriname, 191; Raynal recommends divorce practice, 194
Infantry, details about Turkish, 310f; assemble disorderly, 329; to be deployed on Domuzdere heights, 348
‘İngiliz’ Mustafa, (Campbell), renegade, 37, 332
Iran, see  Persia
Irhoven van Dam, Willem van, publisher, editor, 21; contacts with colleague printers Holtrop and Allart, 419; correspondence with Hendrik de Winter, 341, 418ff; nephew Van Hemert, 419
Isidorus, and Anthemius, architects of Hagia Sophia, 53
Ismaël, satirical-political periodical, 98
İstanbul Efendi, high-ranking Ottoman official, 160ff; 238
Italians, Italy, 79; many quacks are, 244; Turks call the Italians deceivers, 255; exemplary research institutes, 315
Ives, Edward, surgeon, defends trivia in travelogues, 66; in Kirkuk region, 100; high-ranking slaves are actually enviable, 169; Diyarbakır anecdote, 189f; 196
İzmit, 42


Janissaries, disrespect to foreign diplomats, 64f; fire watch-tower, 90; guards for Sultan, 99; rituals and traditions, 151f; some details of their divisions, ranks, 304ff; resist Grand Vizier interested in European war tactics, 322; mere presence keeps population in check, 167; Sultan by tradition member of, 206; revision of mistaken ideas about, 207; Janissary Agha as Generalissimo, 219; guard farmers in dangerous countryside, 404
‘Jan koop me een kermis’, Dutch street-song, 482
Janssonius, Johannes, Amsterdam printer, Atlas minor, 353
Jassy, 66
al-Jawhari, lexicographer, 374
Jesus Christ, as the Messiah, 107; satire of transubstantiation, 147; tedious genealogy in Matthew I mocked, 210; renegades forswear, 217; ‘Issa’ in Islam, 218; teachings later corrupted, 396ff; crucifix, 429; in the crib, 113; execution of dervish preaching divinity of, 156; history of ~ considered holey by PvW, 201; Antichrist in Islam, 325f; in Remarks always abbreviated, J.C., 331; Petraki wears relic splinter of True Cross, 405; power vouchsafed to Apostles, 460; doubt about miracles, 462
‘Jeunes de langue’, 78f. See also  Dragomans

Jews, 63; (Pieter van Woensel on Jews in Turkey and Europe, against antisemitism)


wealthy, active in commerce and banking, 67; as interpreters, 79; very vivacious, 408f; loudly lament their dead, 451; defend their own case in Turkish courts, 103; operate printing press in Turkey ever since its invention, 373; cannot give evidence against Turk, 106; 110; Muslima stoned for alleged adultery with, 157; Hebrew law, 166; Talmud, 481f; Torah mitzvah on self-preservation, 438; Judaism is orthopraxis, 356; its inherent religious intolerance, 457; Ottoman trusts and, 190; 215; are not slaves in Turkey, 105ff; conversion to Islam, 218; Koran about Jews, 95; Phineus alleged co-writer Koran, 219; biased review of N.T., 219; bawdy comedy played by troupe of, 223; fanaticised by ‘la patrie en danger’, 316; imagined by Turks to carry damned Persians to Hell, and vice versa, 170; of a more vivid mind than the Dutch, thus PvW, 161; socio-economic position in Holland, 385; need independent state, says Rousseau 171f; circumcision, 333f; Batavian Revolution brings equal rights, 338; Romans destroy Jerusalem, 458f. See also  Antisemitism

Joannicius III, Greek Patriarch, 121
Jones, see  Paul
Jong, Cornelius de, 46, 59, 61, 63; watches Moorish women with telescope, 109f, their gait is not elegant, 184; punishes homosexual sailors, 133; tales about barbarous Turks are unjust, 153; executions, 156; anecdote about risks of approaching Muslima’s, 192; visit to Algiers, 332; Russians need pilots for North Sea, 401; sees Serre’s painting of Marseilles plague, 443; chances to see women en négligé, 480
Jonge, J.C. de, Archivist of the Netherlands, navy historian, 392
Joseph, Patriarch, 220
Joseph II, Emperor, agitator, died of consumption, 273; ‘in memory of priggism’, 108
Jumelin, physician in Constantinople, 425
Jupiter Urius, temple, 25; ‘Jove’, 398
Justinian, emperor, 43; built Hagia Sophia church, 53; aqueduct, 162
Juvenal, 128f


Kadıasker, see Kazasker
Kadı İbrahim, see  Kazi İbrahim
Kadıköy, 42
Kafadar, Cemal, revised mistaken ideas about Janissaries, 207
Kals, Jan Willem, abolitionist preacher, 175
Kamperduin, Zeeslag bij, 397
Kantelaar Jacobus, 96; political prisoner, related to Van Woensel family by marriage, album amicorum, 359f
Kânûn-nâme, 376
Kapıcı başı, Turkish official, 131
Kaptein, Laban, first academic edition in history to use software-‘animated’ Arabic calligraphy, 375
Kapudan Pasha, title of the Turkish admiral, 191ff, 280ff; 292; collects head tax from Archipelago Greeks, 376; is Armada’s Generalissimo, 220; naval officer Bonneval advises, 403
Karabiga, headland of Kale Burun, 42
Karaburnu, ‘Black Cape’, 348f
Karadja, dynasty of dragomans, diplomats, clerics and doctors, 58
Karasubazar, PvW in, 124
Kâtib Çelebi, Turkish polymath, 311; bibliographical dictionary by, 318, source for Herbelot, 329; 291; 350; translates Dutch atlas, 353
Kauffer, François, engineer, mapmaker, Greater Constantinople, 84, 368; 398; Joan van Woensel’s map based on ~, 424
Kaupe, Anna Helena, wife of PvW’s brother Joan van Woensel, 359; children, archive details, 492
Kaupe, Anna Maria, married to J.H. Reisig and related to Van Woensel, 359, 492
‘the Kavaks’, 335, 338; placing floating batteries at, 345f
Kaynarca, Treaty of Küçük ~, 319, 409
Kazasker, Ottoman chief judge, 160ff, 171
Kazi İbrahim, director of Turkish printing press, 267
Kelek, (kalak), type of ferry over River Tigris, 483
Kepos Burnu, 432
Kerchem, Cornelis van, report with PvW on Wieringen quarantine, 288, 440f; approbation for PvW’s Seaman’s medical guide, 287
Kerk-Avezaath, 97
‘kermes minerale’, 244
Kersseboom, Willem, Dutch pioneer in statistics, influence on PvW, 459
Kethüda, Ottoman official, 399
Keulen, Van, Dutch publisher, 292
Keune, Bernardus, pastor of Dutch Smyrna community in PvW’s time, 225
al-Khidr, 325
‘Kieleik’, see  Kelek
Kinburn, (Kilburnu), fort, 283, 391; carnage, 290; 409; 419
al-Kindî, Apology of ~, 326
Kinker, Johannes, makes drawing copied from PvW’s Lantaarn, 206
Kinsbergen, Van, admiral, successful on Russian Black Sea Fleet, xvf, 400, 377; allegedly PvW’s chief informant on Turkish military, xv, and extolled by him, 364, 331f; commander Mediterranean squadron, 399; notorious for his sailor language, 403; together with PvW in Toulon, 9, 423; wants separate Marine Corps, 199, 394; work on navy signalling system, 430; book on Archipelago shares many verbatim passages with PvW’s Remarks I, 158, 389, 399, 404, 423, 427, 432; furthers Hendrik de Winter’s career, 285; contribution to map of Black Sea, 292; would have succeeded in naval reconquest of Constantinople, 331f (and compare 377); PvW’s Russia considered dedicated to, 28, and PvW’s extremely rare Seaman’s medical guide in (combined) book collection of Titsingh and, 291; knighthood in the Order of St. George mentioned in PvW’s The present state of Russia, 44; marriage to  Hester Hooft; biography written by friend  Van Hall; collaboration with  Frieseman, 158; impressed by  Redelykheid’s work, 390; stressed constant navy exercise, 393f; books sent to Russia, contacts with Oldecop and Chernyshev, 400; shipwreck report  ‘Erfprins’ sent to, 417; 426; mentions PvW’s journalism in letter, 429
Kirkuk, mosque with graves inside, 100
Kleemann, Nicolaus Ernst, on Turkish flag signs, 430
‘Knarsando’, Woenselian music mood marking, 377
Knobelsdorff, Baron de, relative of Van Dedem, 410
Knolles, Richard, 31
Koca Sinan Pasha, Grand Vizier, is Generalissimo, 219
Koca Yusuf Pasha, Grand Vizier, 412
Koerbagh, Adriaen, 328, 356; mock dictionary to ‘explain’ foreign words in Dutch (while criticising Bible), 461
Köhler, Johann David, 57
Komnenus, David Megas, emperor of Trebizond, 325
Konak, Turkish residence, 55
Konya, Quina enjoys fish dish in, 165f
Kooy, Dutch lieutenant stationed in Constantinople, 46
Köprülü, Mehmed Pasha, powerful Grand Vizier, 154f
Köprülüzâde Fazıl Ahmed Pasha, Grand Vizier, rumoured to be atheist, 358
Koran, is the Turkish Bible, 152f, 160, 215; status like the New Testament, 163; Ottoman sultans bound by, 172, 185f; sometimes discourages but does not prohibit learning, 207, 212; bristling with paradoxes, 219f; edited by Abu Bakr, and total of words and letters, 219, 329; both the Turks’ civil and religious code, 225f, 233; must be hand-copied, not printed, 269; about relations with Jews and Christians, 95; temporary marriage, 196; fight ‘unbelievers’ with their own weapons, 415; PvW’s use of, 206, 330; Sale’s translation, 324; (un-)createdness of ~, 326, 329f; genesis of Koranic text within Syro-Christian theology, 323, 326; 375; mainstream Islamology affected by islamizare, 328; Sura Fatiha in ritual, 448; ‘unclean’ Christian takes Turkish ~ lessons in secret, 378; Niebuhr: Koranic Arabic is dead language like Latin, 476
Kortman, Cilia, on possible motives behind PvW’s journey to Turkey, 423
Kouweboter, see  Ouboter
Kremenchuk, PvW in, 433
Kroll, George Ferdinand, Dutch diplomat in Constantinople, 81; letters with mention of PvW and others, 72, 81, 118, 122, 141ff, 209
Kronstadt, Russian naval base, 286, 333, 421
Kroutta, dragoman dynasty, 62
Krusenstern, Russian world expedition under Captain, 377
Kufa, 219
Kurdistan, 315


‘L’, the Reverend ~, 395
‘F.V.L.’, see  Leyden
La Boullaye-Le Gouz, 90, on unlimited authority French ambassadors, 137; Dutch in Turkey use temporary marriage, 197; religion’s small role in Holland, 321; 325; on circumcision, 334f
La Croix, Édouard de, Ottoman festivities with dirty innuendos, 180, and fascinating parade, 208; Grand Vizier Hamet (Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Pasha) is Generalissimo, 220
La Farge, Jean Thomas, poet and polemic writer, 408
Lafayette, 434
Lafitte-Clavé, André-Joseph, military engineer, advisor, use of scale models, 316, 424, 448; military manual in Turkish translation, 376, 414; Joan van Woensel’s Black Sea map defective, 398; knows about PvW, 398, but never names him, 425; much of his (confidential) military report in Remarks I, 423ff; on Petraki case, 405; letters to Choiseul-Gouffier, 409; shallow draft vessels, 419; Bosphorus projects, 427; much local obstruction, 433; day-to-day meteorological observations, 477; Lady Craven and Mr. Vernon, 481
Lala Mustafa Pasha, 156
Lalain, Maria van, heroine in Nomsz’ eponymous tragedy, 459f
Lammens, Adriaan, about PvW in  Suriname, 69, 125, 175f; 177, 467
La Mottraye, sea voyage to Smyrna, 63; insider’s description of  Serail, 86, 116; claims impartiality, 147; executions, 156; polygamous households exception, 178; Janissary Agha as Generalissimo, 220; introduction smallpox inoculation, 434; on Latin and Greek, 477
Langendijk, Pieter, playwright, 65
Language, PvW’s writing style and preferences, vff, 10; confronts readers and critics, xiif, xviiiff, 325, 425; 189, 329, 496; Woenselian emphasis, 475; self-profiling, 9; hyper-precision, 480, and shifts in ~ register to humorous effect, 482; self-invented comparisons, 481; considers Horace an icon, 454; reviewers about his ~, 341, signature rudeness, 114, and Voltairean prose, 131; for Buijnsters pinnacle of Dutch Enlightenment prose, 446; West Indies account in undiluted Woenselian style, 176; wordsmith, pioneer of modern Dutch, 49; lemmata absent from WNT, ‘jabroerderij’, 27, ‘voervocht’ 105, ‘gek-neef’, 125; ‘halfblanks’, 124, ‘knarsando’, 377; coins ‘ondertogtgat’, 113, ‘stokvlees’, 125, ‘juchtigheid’, ‘gelaurensiust’, 126; ‘smouserigheid’, 308; maritime parlance: ‘nieuw-nagel’, 402, ’katterug’ (hogged), 297, ‘vertuien’, ‘hanepoot’, ‘spring’, 428; adjectives, 377; unusual meaning of ‘ingewikkeld’, 458; erotic pun with conjunction ‘afterwards’ (daarna), 463f; importance of PvW’s Dutch Don Quichot reworking, 116; his rhetoric of inquiry and provocation, 31; satirises officialdom’s verbal cascades, 50; fond of ‘double entendres’, 140f, and of  Parenthesis,  Proverbs, and  Metaphors; naughty stories, 131; 192; his use of colloquial and round, 12 (‘save our a . .’), 39 (motte-à-Madame), 54 (‘plug certain emunctoria’), 279 (‘old, maggoty . . . . .’); uses colloquial ‘green’ order of past participle + verb, 49; PvW’s Turkish word pun ‘otouren’, 125; his play with  Names; PvW’s (jocular?) use of Neo-Latin for sensitive content, 442, 483; Koerbagh’s mock dictionary, 461; classic versus modern Greek, Dutch versus German, 426f; etymologies otiose in sermons, 226, 481; different vocabulary in North or South Holland, 213f; some Indo-European etymologies, 62f; Swildens’ pedant style criticised, 341; preachers speak unnatural Dutch, 341; ‘licorice taste’ of Francq van Berkhey’s, 426. See also PvW’s use of  Bible,  Greek language,  Proverbs,  Turkish language
Languedoc, important in Levantine trade, 74
Lannoy, consul in Aleppo, 66
Lanskoj, Alexander, lover of Catherine II, 131
De Lantaarn, not almanacs proper, 390; calendars and saint’s days, 434; overlap with Swildens’ almanac, 210; PvW identifies with, 487; Oortman and various Lantaarn plates, 475; role publisher Van Cleeff, 489; courtesy copy G. Holtrop, 495; self-promotion, 206; ridicules Dutch revolutionaries 28, 205f, 308, issue for 1800 banned, 107, 345, 445; play with  Names, 363; ‘Lucca’ story, 364;  ‘Amurath’ synonymous for, 377; read in high circles, 206, 445f; liftable, glued-on paper flaps in some cartoons, 28, 445; (fold-out) statistical tables, 459. See further  Caricatures
La Pierre, Abram Jacques, prohibits Lantaarn issue, 345
Laplace, see  Swedenborg
Lapland, ‘complete christianisation’ of, 22
Lari, Ottoman atheist, executed, 358
Latin, PvW’s exam, 322; etymologies otiose in sermons, 336, 481; PvW’s citation manner, 340, and (jocular?) use of Neo-Latin for sensitive content, 442, 483; in partly blackletter horoscopy, 445; versus modern Italian, 477; erotica in ~ literature, 483
Laudon, field marshal, 271; takes Belgrade, 415
Laurent, [Pierre], engraver, 471
Lavoisier, chemist, 103; PvW refers to, 453
St. Lawrence, martyr, 355
Lawyers, non-existent in Turkey, 104, 228; no ~ in paradisiacal New Jersey, 373
Lazarets, and cordons contain plague, 47; 369
Leake, William Martin, official discovery Midas Monument, 145
Le Brun, Jacques Balthasard, French shipbuilder in Turkey, 401
Lechevalier, Jean-Baptiste, engineer, mapmaker, 84, 368; story, 89; visits Gül Camii, 100; bedlams; witnessed Petraki’s execution, 222; Sultan’s flammable menagerie with lethal animals, 224; letters to friend  Lafitte-Clavé, 401, and latter’s military report (already in Remarks I), 423ff
Lede, Maximiliaan Lodewijk van, artist, constructs inline skates, roller skates, 361
Leeuwen, Johannes Diderik, plea for cemeteries, 97
Legrand, translation of Ottoman decree on printing press, 374
Legrand d’Aussy, Pierre, 58, 63
Leibniz, (Leibnitz), Gottfried Wilhelm, 210; predicted French Revolution, 217; 382; monadology, 466
Leiden, factory life deforms inhabitants, 129; Musschenbroek’s ‘ ~ Jar’, 62; University, 77, 115, 121; Library collection, 88; publishers in, 86, 105; doctors trained at, 120f; PvW studies medicine in, 342
Lello, Henry, English ambassador, 156
Le Maitre, Cornelis Gerardus, notary in The Hague, PvW’s death, estate, archive details, 97, 195, 292, 392, 447, 488ff
Le Monnier, Louis-Guillaume, natural scientist, 62
Lennep, Van, Dutch merchant dynasty in Smyrna, 14; seized letters by David ~ become ‘prize papers’, 60; praised by PvW, 140; kidnappers of Alfred ~ beheaded, 156; 425
Le Roy, French shipbuilder in Turkey, 294; report on Turkish navy, 389; must compromise on costs, materials, 402
Levant, 47; French dominate trade, 74; 362; 413; Amsterdam Chamber of Levantine trade, 84, 45, and correspondence with Hochepied, 65; Panchaud’s report to, 123; PvW’s acquaintance Hooft is secretary, 142; they present preacher Ribe for Constantinople post, 224f; Van Ghistele: making a will is prudent before journey to, 89; 332; 18th c. French pictorial art of, 473
‘Levend Çiftlik’, estate 392; army barracks, 410
Leyden, Frederik van, correspondence with PvW, 370, 396, 487f
Libraries, are like pharmacies, 208; in Turkey, 210ff; Raghib Pasha, 116, 243
Life and Deeds of George of Fool Town, ascribed by Buisman to PvW, 314, 493; (scenes from), 334, 442, 481, 484
Lillo, see  Lello
Liman, or Dniester estuary, 282
Limborch, Frans van, relative of PvW, 28, 307
Linné, viii; in PvW, 103
Liotard, Jean-Étienne, painter, 369
Lippershey, Hans, 109
Lipsius, (Joost Lips), 459
Lisbon, splendid city, 17
Literature, Turkish, 254ff, translated samples of poetry, 257ff; PvW’s fake indignation about the Muses, 256, 185, 366

Litta, De, commander of Russian flotilla, 421
Little Red Riding Hood, 401
Livonia, 108
Livy, Latin citations, 178, 313
Locke, John, 28, in PvW, 151, 210, 344, 355f; preferred by authorities over Spinoza, 328; advances chemistry and atomism in medicine, 466
Lofting, John, 160
London, larger than Greater Constantinople, 30; size Serail equals City of Westminster, 110, 182; suburbs, 32; Londoners proud of, 34, and St. Paul’s cathedral, 92; river Thames, 69, 182, 418; Custom-house versus Turkish counterpart, 73; steam pump engine fills tank with water to fight fires, 91; more crime than in Constantinople, 88; libraries freely accessible, 210f; Society of Dilettanti in, 89
Loo, Sofie van, study on Petronella van Woensel’s art, 371
Lorck, (Lorch), Melchior, Constantinople panorama, 88, 129
Louis XIV, commissioned Asia Minor expedition, 10; introduced gaudy uniforms, 273
Louis XVI, abolished the wheel, himself beheaded, 158
Louvain, (Leuven), University of, 349
Lubomirsky, Prince, in Constantinople, 431
Lucas, Paul, physician, about Ramadan, 65; Turkish indolence, 94; church-bells in Drama, 117; Turks less rude to Westerner who is doctor, 126; description of Turkish artisans’ parade, 208
‘Lucca’, story in PvW’s  Lantaarn, 364
Lucianus, 321
Lucretius, Latin quotes, 234, 369; description of Athenian plague, 372
Lüdeke, Christoph Wilhelm, translator and editor of Businello, exposes Habesci’s plagiarism, 182f, 203; overview and compilation of travel literature on Turkey, 69; praised by Björnståhl, 182; about Toderini, 31; praise for d’Ohsson, 70; mocks Catholic Guy’s indignation about Greek superstition, 465; Turkish incunables, 78; Englishman anecdote, 89; use of telescope possibly dangerous, 109; Norberg’s letters, 116; Cantemir’s book, 124; West willingly submits to Turkish contempt, 126; French ambassador’s power over subjects now limited, 137; Turkish cutlery, 164, and dining, 166; 205; eunuchs, 168f; presentation of sects and dervish orders on fold-out pages, 170; on marriage arrangements, 196f; Janissary Agha as Generalissimo, 220; 325; overview of Ottoman legal system, 339; Turkish heating device, 478
Ludeman, J.C., (Kersteman), astrologer, 364
Luxury, allegedly negative influence, 177, 383f
Luyken, Jan, artist, 157
Lycurgus, praised by PvW, 210; 365
Lycus, river, 28, 30
Lyonet, Pierre, naturalist, PvW mocks unnamed, 34


Maastricht, some Algerian slaves hail from, 332
MacFarlane, Charles, 69, 118; employs Armenian informant, 182; Grand Vizier is Generalissimo, 220; Turkish ships ‘hogged’, 402; on semaphore-like Turkish signalling, 431
Madytos, Greek village, ethnic cleansing, 432f
Mağlova, see  Aqueduct
Magnesia, (Manisa), Ottoman bedlams, 147
Magnesia on the Maeander, (once identified with Güzelhisar), 90
Magnetism, see  Electricity
Mahmud I, sultan, 182; bibliophile, 318; 367
Mahmud II, sultan, Ottoman quarantine system, 440
Maita, village, 354
Mallet du Pan, Jacques, 71; rejects thesis of Oriental despotism, 73; PvW probably read his review of d’Ohsson, 168
Malta, quarantine in, 439
Mamluks, 385
al-Mamun, Caliph, 320; Koran is not eternal, 326
Man, Gerard de, husband of  Elizabeth van Woensel
Man, Theodorus Marinus, and Maria, and Elisabeth de, inheritance from PvW’s estate, 490
Manas, see  Menasi
Mandeville, Bernard, State profitably taxes both vices and virtues, 134; state-run brothels, 199f
Mangal, Turkish portable indoors heater, 430
Mangala, Greek board game, 417f
Manisa, see  Magnesia
Manstein, general, 367
Marana, Giovanni, writer, 135
Marcus Aurelius, women potentially offended by some dislikes of, 7; 337
Marcus, Jacob Ernst, artist, 160
Mardin, erif, on early Turkish notions of political freedom, 220f
Maret, De, French military mission, 424
Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, 102
Marmara, Sea of, see  Propontis
Marmontel, Jean-François, see  Bélisaire
Marriage, PvW eternal bachelor, 195; for Turkish officers, 407; PvW’s proposal of ‘rental wives’ after Muhammedan temporary ~, 198ff, 457; celibacy contravenes nature, 457f, 463; utilitarian Nature lures mankind into procreative ~, 471; 424; intermixing atoms in children Greek-Dutch, 466; description Greek wedding, 413ff; Guys’ plate ‘Funeral and Wedding’, 162, and partly reworked and borrowed by PvW, 471f, 474f. See further  Divorce,  Polygamy,  Sexuality
Marseilles, on the Constantinople route, 7, 21; ‘horlogiemaker’ (Garnier) survives plague, 48; quarantine facilities, 362f; Serre’s painting of plague in Town Hall, 372;  Van Dedem and  Tor in, 45, 90;  Calkoen and merchant from ~, 121
Marsigli, Count, 95; on the kadıasker, 171; catalogue of Turkish books, 210, 319; cartography, 353; on Turkish alchemy, 253; their military organisation, 304ff, 314; opium indermines its efficiency, 120; on encampment layout, 319; cemeteries, 99; PvW’s reference to plates, 319; 321; in Turkish captivity, 164; admits own Turkish indolence, 93; irreligious Turks, 358; 362; pun with historiated initials, 379f; infantry water carriers, 412
Martialis, books make good wrapping paper, 314; risqué epigram, 483
Martin, Guillaume, 36; meets Panchaud, 123; travels with Choiseul-Gouffier, 126, 448f; opportunistic West accepts Turkish humiliations, 126; on temporary marriage, 196; waiting for favourable wind, 426
Martinet, Joannes, 134; ‘different countries different customs’, 167; 327; on Koran, 329; Turkish irreligion may yet strengthen Christendom, 358; on Turkish meritocracy, 413
Marum, Martinus van, scientist, 361
Virgin Mary, 220, 411
Massil, David, artist, 471
Matthew, see  Bible
Maupertuis, rival of Voltaire, 367
Mavroyeni, Nicolas, dragoman, 194ff
Mayer, Luigi, artist, 129
[Meager], John, sloop captain in Dutch West Indies, PvW’s journey, 468
Mecca, 219; Koranic Arabic studied like (dead) Latin in, 476
Medicine, inspectors for pharmacies, 229; Rousseau very critical of, 235; many unqualified doctors in Turkey, 236ff, profession not regulated, 239, 245; Turkish hot bath treatment, 245ff; obstetrician almost taboo for Muslima, 248; Faculty’s reluctance to admit plague epidemic, 370; not religion but ~ improves life, 340; trained Turkish navy doctors, 399; PvW: terrible state navy hospitals, 441; rise of chemistry in, 466; Aesculapius, 470; Amsterdam Collegium Medicum, 432; PvW accused of lacking qualifications and integrity, 479; PvW prefers dietary therapy and household remedies over copious prescriptions, 487. See also  Anatomy,  Pharmacies,  Physician
Medicinisch-chirurgische Zeitung, journal read by PvW, 350
Medina, 219
Meersch, Abraham Arent van der, Remonstrant minister, relative of PvW, his daughter Adriana, 28; role at PvW’s Remonstrant Seminary, 322; party in ‘Socratic War’, 337f
Mehmed Said (Saʿîd), ambassador, 374; Turkish printing press, 265f
Mehmed I, sultan, 101
Mehmed II, conquers Byzantium, 16, 147; built castles to defend the channel, 26; ‘a second Nero’, 155; orders Scanderbeg’s commanders to be tortured to death, 156
Mehmed IV, sultan, transfers executive power of the House of Osman to senior civil servants, 154ff, 165; final era of Turkish expansion, 124; festivities, 180; 397
Mejer, Andrej, Russian translator of PvW, disapproves of his idea of human vivisection, 159, and entirely omits proposal for biological (plague) warfare, 435f
Melling, Ignace, teaches Van Dedem’s children drawing, 78; Bosphorus scene with famous trees, 118; view from Swedish embassy, 144; plate of aqueduct, 162
Memphis, ancient city of, 385
Menasi, (Manas), dynasty of painters, diplomats, 264; Toderini visits Raphaël’s workshop, 188
Meninski, Franciscus à Mesgnien, Orientalist, 30, 79
Menippus, Cynic satirist, 321; ‘Menippean’ elements in PvW, 344
Mercator, Gerard, Atlas minor, 353
Mercure de France, 71, 73, 102, 168
Mertens, Charles de, physician, 443
Messiah, Jews expect, 107
Mesuë the Elder, physician, 241
Metaphors, with food, xif, xviii, 10; 44, 49, 51, 176, 307f, 325, 33, 53, 481; faith as small as Coco-nut, 147; music, xx, 438; travel, 6; world as entangled braid, 168f; oyster parables, 41f; pyramid, 460f; PvW’s disappointing Anatolia journey like bad marriage and divorce, 482
Methuselah, 208, 423
Mevlevi, dervish order, 377
Michaelis Johann David, towards secular Biblical philology, 328
Michel, doctor at the Marseilles quarantine, 362
Michel, Marie Thérèse Hélène, married to  Tor, 46, 425
Michell, Jan Petersen, physician, friend of PvW, 96
Midas Monument, discovered by Baldwin and Van der Steen, before Leake, 145
Middleton, Conyers, Gibbon indebted to, 456, 463
Mignot, Vincent, Turks love animals, 157; definition of despotism, 207
Milton, ancient, 427
Mimar Sinan, architect, 162
Minarets, brief description, 54f
Minerva, see  Pallas Athena
Miracles, PvW believes 0%, 200, because Christian fairy tales, 400ff
Miranda, Francisco de, Venezuelan revolutionary, on Ottoman ballooning, 37; contacts with Dutch community in Constantinople, 46, 118, and in Smyrna, 64; reads draft version d’Ohsson’s book, 71; dislikes Tott’s approach, 74; Constantinople’s interior extremely dirty, 90; Turks disrespect a West without self-respect, 126; taverns for pederasts, 133; meets Willis, 146; impressed by Ottoman aqueduct, 162; numerous dethronements show Turks’ informed will, 221; contacts with Voulgaris, and Van Schooten, 362; dislikes Suvorov, 391; tours Arsenal with Le Roy and Du Rest, 401; on Müteferrika’s book on reform, 412
mîrî ʿaskerî, Ottoman auxiliary troops, 316
Mirza Khan, Constantinople’s interior very dirty, 90; Turkish indolence, 94; experiences animosity between Turks and Persians, 163, 170
Moerloose, Isabella de, 200
Moldavia, and Wallachia ruled by Greek princes or ‘Hospodars’, 63, 195; capital Jassy, 66; both end up colonies of Russia, 383; northern land route to Constantinople through, 57; presence of church-bells, 117
‘mombieren’, sandflies in Suriname, 176
Monitor, anonymous series, ascribed to PvW, 19f, 492f; (fictitious?) contributors, 27f, 336; motto: content over reputation, 316; meant to spread enlightenment, 344f; oyster parable, 41; against dreary food habit, 58, 393; Chesterfield, 59; admiration for Buffon, 61; 68; astrophysica, 83; 86; importance of drawing skills, 151; 161; Haarlemmers, 190; on Dutch character, 191; English marriage ads, 198; Russian science, 217; 336; Italian Academies, 315; both England and France risk to Holland, 385f; meritocracy’s merits, aristocrats are sponges, 413; Ovid on compassion, 438
Monnier, brigade general, French military mission, 376, 424; Bosphorus projects, 427
Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, forerunner in observation methods and analysis, 31f; 35; on wine drinking, 66; uses Vaughan’s Turkish grammar, 78, and studies hard, 80; London versus Constantinople, 86; in Adrianople, 93f; vast Turkish cemeteries, 99; mummy anecdote, 107; Turks do not destroy mosaics, 111; on aqueducts, 163; Turkish slavery not different from servitude everywhere, 169; women in the West are also treated as an object, 169; polygamous households are rare, 178; rejects second-hand travel accounts, 202, and inveracious Muhammed story, 327; prefers Turkish savoir vivre to knowledge of Newton, 362; introduces Turkish smallpox inoculation in England, 434; also wants to introduce Turkish law to brand convicted liars (politicians) in the forehead, 437; anecdote about intermixing atoms in children Greek-Dutch marriage, 466; on Turkish heating device, 478
Montaigne, Michel de, Montaignesque matter in PvW, vi, 23f, 29, 54f; 40, 321; cosmopolitism, 53; anecdote about woman able to lift ox, 128; torturing Christians worse than cannibals, 159; motto to present Part III, 302; knowledge is not the mother of all virtue, 311; books make good wrapping paper, 314; 331; not even virtuous heathen can enter Heaven, 337; legalistic chicane, 345; no genius without madness, 449; admires Horace, 454; uncensored licentious Latin, 483
Montesinos, Cave of, see  Don Quixote
Montesquieu, religious laws bind the sovereign, 172f; PvW rejects despotism theory, 173–179, and climate’s role in cultural differences, 389f; on travel, 53; on geological processes, 83; influenced by Chardin, 94; despotism, 118; commercial nations put money before morals, 126; Persian and Turkish animosity, 170; a ‘Persian’ wonders about French womanisers, 193f, and the Pope’s changing water into wine, 203, and local ‘querelle d’Homère’, 373, and incredible vanity, 382; duelling, 212; (trias politica) in PvW, 210, who calls his writings political tinker, 213; ‘Persian’ doubts blessings of science, 311, and heretical letter on Koran, 330; Lettres persanes: own culture viewed critically from stranger’s perspective, 327; 344, 355; on future development of weapons of mass destruction, 434
Montgolfier, PvW would have preferred a balloon to traverse Anatolia, 36; 453
The Monthly Review, 103. See further  Cogan
Moralı Beshir Agha, influential Chief Black Eunuch, 201
Morality, on the immorality of war, 43, 355ff; is compass in life, 225f; law of nature and self-preservation, 360ff
Moretus, (Jan Mourentorf), 459
Morgan, Joseph, on executions, 156
Moscow, plague at, 370; plague experiments on convicts, 159; Dutch fire-pumps, 160; 453
Mosque, Ayasofya, 53f; Sultan Ahmed or Blue ~, 60, Süleymaniye, 60; PvW watches Sultan go to Friday prayer, 99; Eyyub Ansari, 149; Gül Camii, 100; rare occasions of graves inside, 100, 307; in Kirkuk, 100; Bodrum Camii, Odalar Camii, 307; ethnic land grabbing by building many, 122; regular executions near Mighrimar Sultan ~ upset neighbourhood, 156; door of ~ serves as foundling wheel, 183; in Sestos, 430
Mottraye, see  La Mottraye
Muchareria, council of war, 312
Mufti, Ottoman religious official, 149, 153ff, 238; akin to High Priest, 163
Muhammed, Prophet, banner of, 149, 157, 309; Emirs are descendants of, 158, 204; did not forbid science, 212; reformer, 216f; prohibited temporal marriage, 196; early doubts about historicity of, 323
Muhammedans, get easily drunk, 15; inertia, 36; treat others with contempt, 63ff; 215; never developed source criticism, 329; intolerance to different dress and customs, 162, 179f; demand head tax from others, 376, as well as right of way, 38; non-Muslims rank below the lowest, 203; their cemeteries more hygienic than Christian church burials, 40; can divorce, unlike Christians, 138, 178f; foundlings are by default ~, 183; all men are ~ by primordial oath, 332. See also  Turks
Mulder, Johannes, obstetrician, 347
Muller, Frederik, engravings dealer and collector, admires PvW, 445; on Oortman and Lantaarn plates, 475; attributes extremely rare prints to PvW, 493
Müller, Gerhard Friedrich, pioneer in ethnography, 329
Munchausen, Baron, adventures in Turkey, ballooning, 37; enema innuendo, 115; populace temporarily saved from doctors, 353; on tyrants and their willing helpers, 387; invited to tsarina’s bed, 388; Baron De Tott lampooned, 432; in Gibraltar with telescope, 469f
Munster, Hendrik van, book printer, PvW dies owing debt to, 292, paid in full from proceeds estate, 489
Murad III, sultan, army strength, 408
Murad IV, sultan, 159; takes Baghdad, 260
Murat, Antoine de, Armenian dragoman to Swedish legation, musicologist, 369
Music, is Remarks’ preface set an octave too high?, xx; Toderini about Turkish ~, 260ff; Greeks are noisy singers, appreciation depends on nurture, 261; PvW finds Turkish ~ unpleasant, 262; score of Turkish, (opposite) 269; notation by Chabert, 135, and in Schweigger, 369; band of musicians at Turkish circumcision, 223f; Sultan’s military band, 312; one staff of a ‘Winter’s Aria’, for Hendrik de Winter, 323, 417; at Greek wedding, 416, 422; group dance ‘Romeika’, 475; compassion with fellow man is like two instruments tuned in unison, 438; first Dutch opera, 470; Dutch street-song, 482
Muslu Beşe, (‘Manav’ ~), rebellion leader, 413, 474
Musschenbroek, scientist, mentioned by PvW, 62
Mussi, Gabriele de’, 434
Mustafa Agha, Ottoman envoy to France, 448
Mustafa Efendi, physician, 242
Mustafa İngiliz, see  İngiliz
Mustafa II, sultan, Treaty of Karlowitz, 87
Mustafa III, sultan, 45; thwarted by ulema, 161, 165, 184; prefers Western doctors, 238; orders Turkish Boerhaave translation, 243; neglects Turkish printing press, 267; forbids ‘unbelievers’ to own slaves, 177; introduces medical licence system, 348; 351; military reforms, 409
Mustafa IV, sultan, executed, 368
Müteferrika, see  İbrahim Müteferrika


Nadazlı Sarı Abdurrahman Efendi, Ottoman atheist, executed, 358
Nahara, headland of, 354
Namen, (Namur), Dutch garrison in, mock stilt walkers fights, 436
Names, PvW’s play with, π2v; viii; 20, 26, 364, 481f; use of dots and abbreviations, vi, 141, 213; Dr. V.N.’, 252; 271, 321, 395; ‘Potemkin’ (marked as a dirty word), 27, 373; initials of (fictitious?) contributors to PvW’s Monitor series, 27f; in PvW’s cartoons, like ‘Lr. A.A.P.’, and ‘B. B.’, 28, 206; Jesus Christ always abbreviated in Remarks, 331; retrograde spelling, 20, 495
Naples, splendid city, 17; Kingdom of, 88
Nara Burnu, 432
Nassau-Siegen, Charles Henry, Prince of, Russian fleet commander, 285f, 419ff
Nationalism, causes narrow-mindedness and prejudice, 3; 202, 165; ‘la patrie en danger’, 316
Nelson, Jane Ware, rediscovers Cantemir’s History, 124
Neorion, see  Arsenal
Nepos, 99
Nestor, 314
Nestorian, a ~ monk alleged co-writer Koran, 219
The Netherlands, see  Holland
Neva, river, waters blessed by clergy, 405
Newton, Isaac, 251; 210; 344, 355; praised by PvW, 351; Lady Montagu prefers Turkish savoir vivre to knowledge of, 362
Nicolay, Nicolas de, 189
Nicomedia, 42
Niebuhr, Carsten, censored by translator  Heron; source for PvW, 15, 336; both Orient and Europe have bad roads, 58; travel advice, 63; Constantinople very dirty, 90; watches Yemeni women with telescope, 110; about enemas, 114; hashish, 120; theory why West is hated more by Turks than Arabs, 127; visits dervish ceremony, 136; aqueducts, 163; ‘different countries different customs’, 167; footware causes Muslima’s awkward gait, 184; eunuchs with wives, 201; puzzled by Islamo-Christian coins, 323; Danish Arabia Expedition, 328; circumcised girl, 335; astronomy, astrology, 363; Western Arabic printing deficient, 375; chess; Oriental women’s fashion, 485
Nieuwenhuis, Ivo, on PvW’s self-profiling, 9; ‘the ambivalent Amurath’, 31, 205; on Gogel’s reference to PvW, 206; PvW translated Paine, 286; 293; 331; PvW as ‘outsider on the inside’, 56, 392
Nieuwland, Pieter, scientist, acquaintance of PvW, 96, 103, 173; 347f
Noak, Bettina, on mystifications in preface Remarks I, 23
Nomsz, Joannes, 459f
Norberg, Matthias, Orientalist, 116
North, English politician, 147
Nostra Madonna delle Grazie, ship under Ragusan flag, 14
Nozeman, Cornelis, naturalist, 337
Nugent, translator of Rousseau, makes ‘Christian’ changes to text, 327



Ochakov, strong estuary fortress, 178; naval battle of, 281ff, and carnage, 394, 289f, 355, 416f; smoking on board ignites Turkish ship, 401; engineer Redelykheid falls at ~, 390
Ockerse, Willem Anthonie, plea for cemeteries in Turkish style, 97; 250
Ofen, conquest of, 335
Ohsson, Muradgea d’, reference book by, 18f; its review probably read by PvW, 168; from Armenian fur-trading family, 92, and French mother Claire Pagy, 466; disdain for others impedes Turkish progress, 95; on Muhammedan purity laws, 112; on dervish orders, 136; Turkish bedlams for men, and women, 147; disbelieves executions in pounding mortar, 157; dessert recipe, 166; Western prejudices, 168; contacts with Brentano, 177; polygamous ulema unpopular, 178; on marriage and divorce, 196, 463; examples of fatwas, 208, and integral translation of Ottoman decree on printing press, 374; witnessed massacre of Christians, 208; Grand Vizier as Generalissimo, 219; 325; overview of Ottoman legal system, 339; names painter Menasi, 372; on Turkish army organisation, 405ff, 411; on Turkish war law, 437; Greek group dance, 475; Turkish heating device would benefit European ladies, 478; Turkish funerals, 485
Oldecop, J.H., trade agent for Russia, diplomat, 293
Olier de Nointel, Charles-Marie-François, French ambassador to Turkey, 398, 448
Olivier, Guillaume-Antoine, 88; visits tomb-stones workplace, 99; famous trees in Büyükdere, 118; accompanies Greek physician to ailing Turkish lady, 184; Turkish people sure to topple abusive Sultans, 221; Turks’ poor maritime skills, 399; Cape Trapeza, 432
Olympus, Mount ~ near Bursa, 37; 41f; 100
Oortman, Jan, artist, probably made (various) Lantaarn plates, 475
Oosterdyk, Hermannus Gerardus, physician, medical inspector, 479
Oostrum, Wilhelmina van, 10; 176; on PvW’s challenge to always check him, 329
Opium, (ab)use, 58
Orangists, 68, 97
Origenes, Church Father, regrets his voluntary castration, 402
Orlov, Alexei, victor naval battle of Çeşme, 352
Ortaköy, village, 41
Osman, (‘Gazi’), founder of Ottoman dynasty, 43, 146; investiture ceremony with sword of, 149
Osman II, sultan, 165
Osymandyas, (Ramses II), 312
Otter, Jean, mistaken for doctor and pressed to treat local women, 127; takes secret Koran lessons, 378
Ouboter, Bartholomaeus, against Freethinkers, 111; Woenselian joke name ‘Kouweboter’, 364, 481f
Oude Brug, famous bridge in Amsterdam, 314
Ovid, unlikely tale from Varna, ix; Latin citation, 135; ‘la tour d’Ovide’, signal tower, 429f; motto from, 438


‘v.d.P.’, 27
Paape, Gerrit, radical Patriot writer, 205; books make good wrapping paper, 314; and Magdalena Verhaast, 342
Padua, medical faculty, 191, 308, 244
Paget, William, 87
Pagniet, in Constantinople, 46
Pagy, Claire, French mother of Muradgea d’Ohsson, 466
Paine, Thomas, translated by PvW, 286, 493
Painting, see  Drawing
‘Pair’, see  Rochefoucauld
Pallas Athene, in PvW’s drawings, 210; on Dutch coin, 365
Pallas, Peter Simon, 33f
Panchaud, Jan Pieter, friend of PvW, 27; dire Turkish economy, personal malversations, 123
Pantelleria, island, 12
Paramana, (Gr.) foster-mother, 409
Pardoe, Julia, 68, 82; a Turkish love story, 108; 140; startled by dangling corpse, 155; inauspicious praise exorcised by Greek bossom spitting, 484; women’s fashion, 485
Parenthesis, use of, 10ff, 66; PvW lover of, 153; digression, 307
Paris, residence d’Ohsson, 18; larger than Greater Constantinople, 30; Parisians proud of city’s size, 34; many small and dirty streets, 36f; Nôtre Dame quarter, 36; Bastille, 50; Place de Victoire and Vendôme, 59; drinking water distribution, 92; famous for gallantry, 136; free access libraries, 210f; visits by  PvW
Passarowitz, Treaty of, 220
Patriots, 97f, 205
Patrona Halil Rebellion, 221, 413, 474
Paul, the Apostle, began Christianity’s war on science, 320; Man is justified by faith, 356
Paul, (Paul Jones), John, rear admiral, 420
Paulus, Pieter, Dutch Patriot, 434
Pelagians, 337
Pera, 30f; cemeteries, 41; height restrictions to avoid peeping into Court, 52; brief impression, 75ff; dragomans in, 203f; a hanging in, 89; Western ladies and make-up, 124, 169; latest women’s fashion, 435; diplomatic district, 140, 375
Perekop Isthmus, 376
Persia, ancient empire under Darius, 42; Sunni Turks abhor Shiite Persians, 106; their dress rejected by Turks, 163; many Persians pardoned thanks to song, 260; Persian court painters, 264; Persian Gulf, 384; divided ~ easy prey for ruler of Baghdad, 384; science-fiction story set in, 37; ruler needs terror or lose throne, 214; allegedly two journalists hanged for false news, 339; Dahak in Iranian mythology, eschatology, 325; Zoroastrians, 331. For ‘Persian Letters’, see  Montesquieu
Peter I, (‘the Great’), tsar, 177f; proverbially frugal 181; planned to reconquer Constantinople, 277; 14; praised by Müteferrika, 95; orders Dutch fire-pumps, 160
St. Petersburg, splendid city, 17; court played down Moscow plague, 370; PvW publishes in, 47, 435; PvW doctor at Noble College of Land Cadets, 103; Dutch garden design in, 117; PvW with Swildens, 141, and Hendrik de Winter in, 421; built-up area of, 143; ice sculptures anecdote, 189f, 308; journals, 421; monument to Orlov, 431; PvW expects 600,000 inhabitants in 1900, 447. See also  Russia
Peterson, John, made drawing of Constantinople aboard ship, 89
Petraki, the ~ case, 193ff, 405
Petrarca, fabricated journey to Holy Land, 58
Petrovaradin, Battle of, 221
Peyssonnel, Charles de, French diplomat and Orientalist, criticised for being biased ‘Turk-lover’, 76, 125; private quarrel with Tott, 77, and often disagrees, 345; rejects thesis of Oriental despotism, 73, 152; rejects Volnay’s gloomy perspective for Turkey, 444; praised by PvW, 20f, 136; about Brentano, 177
Phædrus, citation, 452
Phanal, see  Fanal
Pharmacies, ditch useless medicines, 208; inspectors for, 229; Constantinople’s ~ are questionable, 247; Dutch clergy’s influence in certificates, 49, 348; about apothecaries applying enemas, 114f; Karadja Brothers, 121; apothecaries sitting on Amsterdam Collegium Medicum, 479
Philosophy, Turks are philosophers in their own right, 248ff; ~ views all religions as equally false, 397; law of nature and self-preservation, compassion, 360ff; our being defines our understanding, 41; PvW dislikes Stoicism, 47, 54; Seneca and Zeno, 56; natural law, moral duty, 387; (pre-Socratic) ‘Seven Sages’, 438
Phineus, Israelite, alleged co-writer Koran, 219

Physician, (for the individual names, s.s.v.v.),

Abbas Vesim; Abdulaziz; Albinus; Bacheracht; Barbaro; Bidloo; Boerhaave; Bonn; Burmann; Camper; Clerc; Cogan; Cullen; Dallaway; Daniëls; Deiman; Desgenettes; Dietz; Drake; De Famars; Van Foreest; Gariel; Gaubius; Gobbis; De Haen; Haller; Van Hoogstraten; Hovius; Ives; Jumelin; Karadja; Lucas; Mertens; Michel; Michell; Mulder; Oosterdyk; Plempius; Portus; Russell; Samoilovich; Scheidius; Schreiber; Van Swieten; Sydenham; father and son Timoni; Treves; Turnbull; Velse; Vrolik; Willet; Wittman; three hundred hekims, 239; Turks less rude to Western ~, 126f; Otter mistaken for doctor and pressed to treat local women, 127; a Greek doctor visits ailing Turkish lady, 184; several pre-modern Arab and Turkish medical men, 241f; PvW sarcastic about Amsterdam Collegium Medicum, 432f, and unnamed colleague, 244

Physics, properties of light, 16; on hydrology, 28f; Turks ignorant of modern, 251ff; example with balance scale, 275f. See also  Electricity
Piazzi, Giuseppe, astronomer, 38
Picart, Bernard, artist, engraver, 134f; PvW and work of J.F. Bernard and ~, 76, 472; 485
‘Pierlala’, 481f
Pius II, Pope, 220
Plague, endemic in Constantinople, 46, seldom affects the palace, 53; hospital for Franks, 83; in Egypt, 105, 148; Russian experiments on convicts, 159; PvW’s proposal for biological warfare, 386, 404f, 356–373; Lucretius’ description of Athenian ~, 372. See also  Germ,  Quarantine
Plantijn, Christoffel, publisher, 459
Plempius, (Foppe Plemp), physician, and Arabic printing, 349
Pliny, Latin citations, v, vii, xi, xvii, xviii; writings on botany, 251; 12; 362; PvW ascribes quote ‘no genius without madness’ to, 449
Ploos van Amstel, Cornelis, PvW’s sister Elizabeth works and trains as artist with, 308, 371
Plutarch, 393; 483
Pococke, Richard, estimate of Constantinople’s population, 88; brings his own slave to Turkey, 177
Poirot, cartographer, French military mission, 424
Poland, on northern land route to Constantinople, 57
Poltava, battle of, 274, 410
Polygamy, is actually rare in Turkey, 116f; quickly shows if man is infertile, 463
Polytheism, monotheists destroy golden age of toleration, 396ff; wooden idol from Berbice (in PvW’s estate), 458
Pompey, PvW to ‘Column of ~’ on Cyanean rocks, 24ff; 344, 427, 429
Pop, Gerrit Frans, navy medical inspector and historian, about PvW, 199, 293, 491
Pope, Alexander, 32; in PvW, 210, 323
Popov, secretary to Prince Potemkin, 420
Porte, Joseph de la, translated in Russian by Bulgakov, 108
Porter, James, English diplomat and writer on Turkey, 85; married to a Hochepied, 149; returns home, 117; PvW used the English edition of, 203; 106, and views ~ as impartial author, 104, if sometimes mistaken, 136; 170f; 185; 188ff; corrupt Turkish judges, 234; on wine drinking, 66; Turkish dinners, 166; the lascivious women, 180; polygamy only brings hassle, 181; considers temporary marriage prostitution, 196; consulted by PvW on Koran, 206; if a despot, then Sultan has much Christian companions, 207; irreligious Turks, 358; denounces religious hatred, 464
‘Portlohah Effendi’, retrograde writing for PvW’s publisher ‘Mr. Holtrop’, 20, 495
Portsmouth, Russian ships destined for, 293
Portugal, empire, 313
Portus, Antonius, physician, 371
Post, Hermann, 90
Postel, Guillaume, 66; learning Turkish difficult, 79; Turks destroy mosaics, 111; claims impartiality, 147; tales about barbarous Turks are unjust, 152; executions, 155ff; polygamy only brings hassle, 180f; henna, 188f; kabbalist and ‘Cosmopolite’, 189; on temporary marriage, 196; Islam as a Christian heresy, 324; 327; Western legalistic trickery, 339; Turkish honeymoon nights, 471
Potemkin, de facto rules Russia, 192; commander of Black Sea fleet, 286, 331; loathed, 27, 420, and mocked by PvW, 131, 373; covered in decorations and medals, 214; ‘laurel-wreath of emeralds’, 394; dies of dysentery, 123; his fake villages in the Crimea, 205; dislikes Hendrik de Winter, 420; 426
Potocki, Jan de, on Turkish indolence, 94
Pouqueville, François, Turkish captivity, 427
Praxiteles, 109
Préaulx, (Préaux), Michel-François, artist, drawing of Dutch embassy, 140
Preindl, Joseph von, 376
Priapus, naughty element in Turkish festivities, 180
Prideaux, Humphrey, 327
Priestley, PvW familiar with research of, 453
Princes’ Islands, 42; PvW’s outing to 118, 143
Printing, Turkish introduction of, 265ff; essential in dissemination of knowledge and reason, 404
Procopius, 101
Propontis, 23, 27, 29, 41, 50; 350
Prostitution, male, 75; public women in Turkey, 127f, 437f; Turkish police exploits, 134; PvW advocates temporary marriage, 138f; Paris anecdote by PvW, 95f; connotation between whores and worms, moths, 95, 388; Gipsy ~ on Turkish cemeteries, 99; Armenian hanged for intercourse with ‘accomodating’ Muslima, 154; plate of loose girl in historic costume, 189; Mandeville proposes state-run brothels, 199f
Provence, seamen from the, 11; important share in Levantine trade, 74; Provençals use economic coal-pan to heat, 433

Proverbs (and sayings), (salient feature in the work of Pieter van Woensel)

reviewer annoyed at many ~ in Remarks, 482; ‘five-legged sheep’, xii; ‘let well enough alone’, 5; ‘meat after mustard’, 9; ‘no greater mountains’, 14; ‘op ieder potje past een deksel’, 122; ‘a mountain out of a molehill’, 139; ‘weten waar Abraham de mosterd haalt’, 176; ‘the pigs walk in the corn’, ‘the bowline is over the yard arm’, 257; ‘the cowl does not make the monk’, 307; ‘possession is nine tenths of the law’, 381; ‘to have eaten a bag of salt with someone’, 391; ‘more out of place than baking fritters in a tragedy’, 437; ‘out of sight, out of mind’, 451; ‘flies are caught with honey’, 9; ‘het sop is de kool niet waard’, 82; about monks and loose women in Paris, 95f; about women, 170, 183; ‘charity begins at home’, 187; ‘calfs don’t die from baying dogs’, 331; (Turkish) ‘give a cat wings, and no sparrow will remain’, 357; ‘een paardje dat nog harder draaft’, 359, 331; about lords and whores, 388; ‘he’s an English friend’, 393; sailing expressions, 426; cows and cherry trees, 447; ‘St. Anna’, 469; ‘voor zoete koek slikken’, 482

Prussia, penal law, 176; absolute monarchy, 179; art of war not affected by flourishing arts, 274f; military aid to Turkey, 302
Prut Peace Treaty, 218
Puckler, Internuntius of Austria in Constantinople, 352

Pufendorf, Samuel, Lutheran philosopher, read by PvW in Barbeyrac’s commentaries, 357–368; 25, 438f
Pyrrho, PvW and, 344
Pythagoreans, 357


Quarantine, 362f. See also  Cordons
‘Queetbeeterik’, 20, 26, 364
Quina, Carel, 57f, 90, 98; finds murdered man, 156; enjoys fish dish in Konya, 165f


‘R.D.B.G.D.I.H.M.V.’, see  Van der Meersch
‘R.O.’, essay in Monitor (allegedly) by, 27, 161, 336
Raadgeevingen, 291ff, 309. For review, see also  Vaderlandsche Letteroefeningen
Rabelais, 47; 106
Raccord, French military mission, 424
Rafael, Armenian musician, (identical with painter ~ Manas?), 369; 372
Raghib Pasha, Grand Vizier, library, 243; wants Turkish translation of Newtonian physics, 362
Ragusa, ship from, 14, 362; doctor Gobbis from, 239; quarantine in, 439
Ramadan, is not fasting but postponed eating, 65; alleviated with opium, 121; preceded by seasonal sales peak, 133
Ramses II, (Osymandyas), 312
Ransonnette, Pierre Nicolas, engraver, 471
Rantzow, Louis, PvW adduces proposal to increase Russia’s population with polygamy, 179
Raphael, Renaissance painter, 379
Rathkeal(e), see  Herbert
Rayas, non-Muslims, are basically treated like dogs, thus PvW, 170f; must pay head tax, 109; lowest Musulman still above highest, 203; unclean, unworthy of even touching Koran, 378
Raye, Joan, 35; wishes to see Turkey, 69, and accompanies ambassador Dedel, 173; handwritten travelogue, 46, much borrowing from Tournefort, etc., 432; paints watercolours showing Smyrna, 60, Dutch embassy, 139, Bonneval’s grave, 368; Greek group dance, 475; (copied after Ferriol:) women smoking, playing music, and board game, 473; stench Turkish cemeteries, 98; 102; fire-fighting, 160; women in West treated mainly as an object, 169; acquaintance of PvW?, 173; Amsterdam address, plantation in Suriname, 173; hopes to see ladies’ charms on novel Turkish sofa, 478
Raynal, History, xv, 301, 324; PvW’s digests of, 42ff, 334, 404f, 493; about Suriname, Paramaribo, 165, and Dutch Moluccas, 425; against slavery, 169ff, 175; Indians’ divorce practice lesson for Europe, 194; religion’s downfall initiated by printing and textual criticism, 328; printed ideas travel far, 464; on circumcision, 334; paramount aspect of Islam is exteriority, 357; military advisors to Muhammedans endanger Christian West, 404; a European Union is needed to counterbalance United States, 446; global trade revolution, 451; perhaps Greek Renaissance in New World, 465; on racial ‘genetics’, 467
Al-Râzî, on children’s diseases, 241
Réaumur, René, 34
Récamier, Juliette, 360, Petronella van Woensel’s copy of portrait by Cosway, 360
De Recensent, journal, connexion between PvW, Irhoven and Hendrik de Winter, 21, 422; friendly review of Remarks I, 48, 422; review section for ‘Trash’, 314; negative review for Rev. Ouboter, 481
Rechteren, Christiaan Albert van, Dutch minister plenipotentiary in St. Petersburg, 418
Redelykheid, Cornelis, Dutch water engineer, inventor, 283f; falls in Russian service, 390
Reformation, brought degree of pragmatism and reasoning, 395, 403
Reʾis Efendi, title high official, makes money selling privileges, 111; buys off rebellious Janissaries, 322
Reisig, Anna Gesina, second wife of Kantelaar, intermarried families of Kaupe, Van Woensel, and, 359
Reisig, Jan Hendrik, publisher-owner of  Schoonhovensche Courant, contributions by relative PvW, 359, 429, 488, 492
Reland, Adriaan, Orientalist, 79, 207

Religion, (Pieter van Woensel against organised religion)

uses position as milching cow, 40; clergy deceitful and after profit, 449f; interfere in politics, incite hatred, 459f; Dutch pharmacies gratify clergy to get certificate, 49; priests almost always charge fees, 123, 222; clergy’s meddling in marriage and divorce, 194f; abets zealots and soldiers, 157; always imposing, whilst claiming ‘hurt feelings’, 215; secularisation is not de-christianisation, 321, 491; clergy seeks to shackle the human mind, 227ff, 394ff, and dominate Dutch cultural landscape, 315, causing intellectual stagflation, 211, 346; they pontificate about the Watch-maker as if they worked in His shop for years, 41; actors understand human character better than ministers, 251; PvW against magic, miracles, superstition, 61, 462, and finds Jesus’ history obscure and holey, 201; Christendom most blood-shedding ~ ever, 464; he might discuss morality of biological weapons with a minister one day, 355; philosophy views all ~ as equally false, 397; Turkish cemeteries for various denominations, 99; PvW on persecution and wars of ~, 170, 398; historical-critical approach unique to West, 327ff; orthodoxy versus orthopraxis, 356, and versus orthopædy, 413; non-conventional weapons un-christianly, 435. See also  Christians,  Church

Remarks I, (analysis of Pieter van Woensel, Aanteekeningen (‘Remarks’))

anonymous, with bogus colophon, 20ff, 470; terminus post quem, 21, 476; never named vol. I, but second volume clearly planned, 20, x, 280, 331; PvW writes aged 43, v, and working on it March 1790, 136; ~ is like naughty brat, xviii; might end up as shelfwarmer or waste paper, 166, 388f; its delirious origins, iiiff, 329; preface set an octave too high, xx; readers challenged to check facts, 454; travel notes edited afterwards, ixf, 51; is principally a ‘voyage philosophique’, 11; is ‘paysage intériorisé’ mirroring PvW’s worsening mood, 482; very few first-hand observations, 71, 409; use of  Herbelot;  Niebuhr; consulted admired  Porter, much borrowing from  Guys,  Marsigli,  Toderini; great influence of  Gibbon; counters critical observations on Turkey of  De Tott, and Björnståhl; often disagrees with  Ferrière Sauvebœuf, and  Rousseau, and  Montesquieu; PvW’s (manipulative) misrepresentation of the arguments and contributions by others, 76f, 194, 207, 218f, 383f, 415, 449; Bonneval’s entire manuscript on Turkish navy integrally in, 389ff, 399, 402f; and much of Lafitte-Clavé’s confidential military report, 423ff; brother Joan gives Dutch authorities complementary copy of PvW’s Remarks I–II, 396; plates inserted at individual binder’s pleasure, 471; (for table of plates, see my p. 496); reviews in  De Recensent, and by  Cogan

Rembrandt, 314; PvW tells anecdote, 373; 495
Remonstrants, Van Woensel family is, 28; 98, but never attend church, 331; seminarian PvW, 122, 322; dissenters from repressed to repressors, 321; party in ‘Socratic War’, 337f
Renaissance, PvW’s intellectual appreciation for Reformation honours ~, 30; Belon is true man of, 52; begin of the personal observation, 52; ~travelogues typically Turkophobic, 149; developments in Arabic typography, 233; progressive allogamy of humanistic philology and art of printing, 328
Renegades, despised, 217; often scum, 221
Rennes, promenade of, 39
Rentinck, Elisabeth, married to PvW’s paternal uncle Pieter van Woensel, 307, 488; PvW’s godmother, see  (ed.), Part 1, my pp. 11, 18
Repnin, Prince, 93
Rest, see  Du Rest
Resuscitation techniques, tobacco clyster, 115. See also  Swimming
Reviczky, Karl, 95, 137; on Turkish Boerhaave translation, 352; translation of Müteferrika, 397, 412
Revius, Jacobus, 338
Revolution, (Russian) seizure of Serail will incite sedition in all Ottoman provinces, 378, 382; Greece needs cultural, 404f. French ~, see  France
Rhazes, 241
Rhoer, Rheinardus Werner Lelius de, apothecary, pharmacies inspector, 479
Ribe, Jean François, preacher Dutch embassy in PvW’s time, 46, tutor of Antony van Dedem, 224f
Riccoldo da Monte di Croce, (‘Fra’ ~), 325
Riedesel zu Eisenbach, J.H., 89
Riemer, Maria de, and PvW’s niece Jannetta de ~, 28; death of, 307
Riemersma, sea captain, 418
Rigo, Jean-Louis, secretary Dutch embassy, 369
Rijn, Gerrit van, on PvW, 28, 50; 98
Rijneveld, Daniël Jan van, captain, memoirs reworked by son Nicolaas, 399; brings ambassador  Van Dedem to Turkey, 140; seems to dislike and suppress PvW, 45, 399f; about Ramadan, 65; on opium abuse, 120; greater part of Haarlem would fit into Serail, 110; careful not to sound ship’s bell in Turkey, 116; on painting style Serre, 443
Riva, 341f; 429
Robertson, Marie, (Greek) wife of Samuel Borneman, 146
Robertson, William, plagiarism of book Alletz, 393
Rochefoucauld, François VI, Duke de La, 438
Rochensalm, (Svensksund, Ruotsinsalmi), naval battle of, 417, 421f
Rome, threatened by Hannibal, 42; Roman law, 166; cultivates, 455, and is highly indebted to Greece, 392f; ideal religious climate in pagan, 396ff; Romans take pride in St. Peter, 92; centurion, 382
Romeika, popular Greek dance, 422
Roos, Paul-François, poet and slave-owner in Suriname, 172
Rosetta, 155
Rossini, G.F., artist, view of Constantinople, 146
Rotgans, Lukas, playwright, 65
Rotterdam, vision for future ~ with crematorium, 98
Rouffaer, Jean, married to Susanna Maria van Woensel, 492
Rouffaer, Petronella, daughter of Susanna Maria van Woensel, married to  J.W. Suringar, 492
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, doubts science’s blessings, 205, 361, 383; his unsociable character, 205f; PvW dislikes, 14, 453; 36; criticises study of medicine, 235; about the soldier as killer for hire, 270; roots and impact of Contrat social, 373; man solely shaped by nurture, 389f; Jews need independent state, 171f, 327; majority mankind is ‘heathen’, 456; Biblical miracles beyond belief, 462; rejects Grotius’ supernatural premises, 212; text ‘Christianised’ by translator Nugent, 327; virtuous pagans redeemed too, 337; 344, 355; lukewarm interest in Holland, 346; the phenomenon ‘Englishman’ is unfathomable, 360; 465
Rowlandson, Thomas, cartoonist, 388
Roy, see  Le Roy
Roy, Hendrik à, 283, 291
Rubens, Peter Paul, ‘portrait within a portrait’ genre, 344; mythological scenes, 470
Rumelia, 351
Rumelifener, (Fenerköyü), 427, 429
Rumeli kavağı, (Milton), 427
Russell, Alexander, naturalist, physician, paramount aspect of Islam is exteriority, 357

Russia, (life and work of Pieter van Woensel in Russia)

PvW considered emigrating to, 55, feels knowledgeable about, 151; climate influences Russian character, 453; ways of heating, 477f; steam baths in, 71f; serfdom, 108, makes it ‘White-Negroland’, 173, 468; sparsely populated, should make people expensive, 495, instead human life is cheap in, 173, 287; neglected subjects loose self-esteem, 171; allergic to democracy, 213, 308; has devastating weapons, 289f; with statistics, 459, PvW’s predicts super power, 385, 446f; but so far disappointing underachievement, 447; countless medals and honours, 175, uniforms and ranks very important, 382; army rank Empress, 151; Order of St. George, 286, 323; succession of tsarinas detrimental to, 179f; Turks call the Russians bad souls, 255; capable and planning to end Ottoman Empire, 276f, 329, 375ff, 380ff; many Russo-Turkish  Wars; hoped liberators of Greeks, 276, 279f, 380f, 464f; alliance with Austria, 279; naval battles ( Fleet) against Ottomans, 281ff, 352; Liman of  Ochakov; Russo-Swedish war, 287, 177, 417, 421f; naval surprise attack on Constantinople feasible, 330f; biological warfare absent from treaties with Turks, 359; number of inhabitants could be immense, 154; polygamy proposal to increase Russia’s population, 179; unruly crowds dispersed with water cannon, 160, 167; fire safety measures in theatre, 434; theatre next to church, 338; PvW’s contacts with Princess Dashkova, 342; Academy, 217, 470; secret agent PvW’s correspondence with Foreign Affairs, 16, 55, 57, 201, 206, 213, 370, 462, 482, 487f; Dutch carrots delicacy in, 307; PvW mocks state of book trade, 319, and Medical College, 348; wintery scene with iceslide ramp, 475. See also  St. Petersburg

Rycaut, Paul, studied in Spain, 197; 31; on executions, 157; most views contrary to PvW’s, 162; on Turkish–Persian animosity, 170; claims Turkish women acquiesce in polygamy, 181; eunuchs with wives, 201; 203; Kapudan Pasha is Generalissimo of Turkish Armada, 220; 326; authoritative overview of Muhammedan denominations, 357


Ṣaddîḳ, 331
Saenredam, Jan, painter, 470
Sahillioğlu, Halil, agriculture forced Ottomans to also use solar-based calendar, 22
ahin Ali Pasha, Grand Vizier, 412
Saʿîd, see  Mehmed Said
Saint Pierre, island, 13
Saint-Priest, Count de, French ambassador to Turkey, 410; instructions for military mission Lafitte-Clavé, 424; 448
Saint-Remi, 177
Sakka, function of water carrier, 317
Salaberry, on Constantinople fire-tower, 161; disapproves of Turkish meritocracy, 413
Saladin, 303
Sale, George, Koran translation, 324, 327
Salmasius, (Claude Saumaise), Classical scholar, 77
Salmon, Thomas, 65, 87, 100; 134; striking similarity between Van der Steen painting and plate in, 145; 431
Salomon, king, 258
Saloniki, see  Thessaloniki
Samarkand, 37
Sambix, father and son, 48
Samoilovich, Daniel, physician, 442
Sanchismos, see  Proverbs
Sancho Panza, 147; island of Barataria, 285, tempted by power, 138f; thinks his master is a downright thologister, 440. See also  Don Quixote
Sandwijk, see  Zandwijk
Sandys, George, Constantinople’s interior disappoints, 90; on Turkish indolence, 93; opium, 120; polygamy, 181; epilation, 186; paintings in Serail, 371; classical and modern Greek mutually intelligible, 477
Sansom, Francis, engraver, π2v, 17, 471
Sans-Souci, 258
Sassen, on PvW’s language register, 49f
Sataldere, stream, 424
Satan, 289
Savérien, Alexandre, on the history of progress, 317, 455
Scaliger, Joseph, Orientalist, 77, 79
Scanderbeg, 156; as Generalissimo, 220
Scatology, (toilet humour), 112; zealous Muslims with diarrhea plug anus before prayer, 54; 114; ‘without the risk of loosing my foresk . .’, 133; ‘the big gelded one – what, then, might this be?’, 145; water as wine and horse . . . . . as figs, 147; so, Dr. Drake saw many foreskins?, 222f; 27. See also  Sexuality
Schaasberg, Simon, silhouettist, 416
Schah-kuli, musician, 260
Schasz, see  Paape
Schats, in Constantinople, 46
Scheidius, F.A., physician, 343
Schenck, Johan, composer, 470
Schimmelpenninck, Rutger Jan, PvW and the Raadpensionaris, 309
Schoenmaker, Klaas Diederik, sea captain, PvW’s journey to  Suriname, 468
Schoonhovensche Courant, PvW’s writes for relative and publisher  Reisig
Schooten, Jean Paul van, Dutch merchant, with  Miranda, 362
Schreiber, Johann Friedrich, physician, 371
Schroeff, Van der, Dutch merchant family in Turkey, 46, 118, 425
Schultens, Jan Jacob, 30; pioneer of secular philology, 328; edition of Life of Saladin, 405
Schultz, Stephan, 30; 64; daily practice key to learning languages, 80; anecdote about Muhammed faking revelation, 326; Western Arabic printing deficient, 375; on Christian congregations in Constantinople, 403; water carriers, 412; anecdote about terrible misunderstanding in Turkish, 431
Schweigger, Salomon, wintery journey, 68; on Turkish versus German baths, 131; on executions, 155; aqueducts, 163; sketch of daily life of henpecked Turkish husband, 178; epilation, 186; Turkish rudeness to foreigners, 126; wood-cut with two staves of Turkish war-song, 369; meritocracy’s merits, 413
Sciences, flourish in authoritarian Prussia, 179; Russian reform of, 181; state of learning in Turkey, 205ff; serendipity is pivotal, 209; Rousseau doubts blessings of, 205; bogus fatwa as proof of Ottomans’ dislike of, 221; Muhammed’s alleged aversion to, 312
Scotin, Gérard Jean-Baptiste, (and his son ~), artists, scene of whirling dervishes, 135; scenes with women smoking, playing music, and board game, 186, 473; water carrier, 412; a Turkish funeral, 485
Scribophilus, fictitious scholar loose in the bowels, 113, 314
Scutari, 27, 31, 42; 88, 100, 177; signalling system at, 431
Seaman’s medical guide, see  Raadgeevingen
Seddik, see  Ṣaddîḳ
Seeling, Johan George Carl, Amsterdam-based official for St. Eustatius, 418
Seghers, (Segers), Hercules, artist, 314
Self-preservation, on law of nature and, 360ff; Christians lack instinct to fight for, 400
Selim III, sultan, 45; limits foreign privileges, 111; received good education, 214; also a poet, 258f; saved by Swedish intervention, 332; artillery reform, 410
Seneca, citations in Dutch, 5f; in Latin, 6; 23, 56; in PvW’s selection of books while travelling, 323; no genius without madness, 449
Señor, use in Dutch, 289
Sentimentalism, PvW mocks, 65, 382
Senyavin, Alexei, Russian vice-admiral, 398
Serail (palace of Turkish sultan), 16; measurements and map, 30ff, with pounding mortar ostensibly for executions, 157f; floor plan by Comidas, 33; brief impression, 51ff; a doctor’s Harem visit, 141ff; syphilis rumoured to be widespread, 121, as well as atheism, 357; court-jesters and astrologers, 252; immense wealth, 302f; easy prey for (Russian) surprise attack, 330ff, 377f; sign language with deaf palace servants, 466
Serapis, temple, 25
Serfdom, see  Slavery
Sergius, (‘Bahira’), Nestorian monk, alleged co-writer Koran, 326
Serre, Michel, painter, 372
Sestini, 33
Sestos, mosque, 430
Sevastopol, Russian naval base, 327, 330ff, 380; PvW dances with Greek skippers in, 423. See also  Crimea
Seven Towers, (Yedikule), prison-house, 50, 427; pounding mortar allegedly for executions, 157f
Séwel, Willem, burials inside church violate Biblical purity laws, 97

Sexuality, (in the work of Pieter van Woensel)

PvW’s rounded, naughty  Language; he mates more than he is mated (N.B. in chess), 418; mixed steam baths, 72; PvW diagnoses mating urge in young sailors, 131, 473, and in young women, 179; baths, sex, and wine spoil our bodies, 187; German women’s sex almost changed by hard field work, 190; homosexual (commercial) meeting places in Galata district, 75; cut-off penises dried and powdered as mummia, 335; Muhammedan temporary marriage, 138, 179, 457; hermaphrodites in Islam, 335; syphilis rumoured to be widespread in Turkey, and Palace, 121; eunuch with harem is like blind art collector, 141; Christians’ troubled view of, 401f; intercourse with pregnant woman in Biblical sense a sin, 179; Ottoman festivities feature innuendos, 180; Ottoman erotica, 371; Turkish dirty and swear words, 118, 469; women’s genitalia called “Merryland”, 179; Venus, 415, 179, Aphrodite, 470; procreation, 24, 179, is obligatory for Muhammedans, 201; maximum duration of human pregnancy, uncertain paternity, 46f; doubted virginity, 469; ~ in Suriname, 467. See further  Circumcision,  Harem,  Marriage,  Polygamy,  Prostitution,  Scatology,  Women
Seydiköy, near Smyrna, Dutch country houses, 64
Seyyid Muhammed ‘al-Ṭabîb’, physician, 242
Seyyid Vehbî, poet, 368
Shakespeare, Hamlet, 348
Shaw, Thomas, 156; pioneer in secular study of Islamic world, 328
Shaykh al-Islam, Ottoman religious functionary, 149; issues bogus fatwa at Sultan’s instigation, 221; Veliyettin, 352


PvW with Dutch hooker from Marseilles to Smyrna, 11, and on to Constantinople with Ragusan vessel, 14; peat barge, 30; declining shipping-traffic Black Sea, 62; Turkish types of, 69; galleon, 89; caravel, 292; Russians need pilots for North Sea passage, 293, 401;Turkish ships resemble Zaandam flutes, 295; Zaandam fluyt freighters always capably managed, 414; Turkish construction ‘hogged’, 297; Turks target Venetian sailing ~ with incendiary arrows, 395; Sinop shipyard, 404; PvW on prevention of coal-gas poisoning aboard, 453; buttermilk, 407, and sauerkraut against scurvy, 493; crusader ship breaks harbour chain, 84; Englishman looked at Constantinople without disembarking and left, 34; steam yacht for Sultan, 69; England confiscates Dutch hooker Vrouwe Susanna Maria, 60; toilet humour animosity between Dutch and English sailors, 209; PvW: sailors’ pagan worship of Bacchus and Venus, 470; manuals on seaman’s health by  Bacheracht, and PvW; (figurative) sailing expressions, 426; frigate ‘Amphitrite’, 178; PvW’s brother Justus on frigate ‘Argo’, 488; galleon ‘Aurora’, 441; PvW to Demerara with sloop ‘Carel François’, 468; shipwreck of ‘De Erfprins’, 416, (361); war ship ‘Goes’, 441; PvW to Suriname aboard frigate ‘Haastrecht’, 468; man of war ‘Jupiter’, 423; the ‘Khotin’, 398; ‘Noord-holland’, 399; packet-boat ‘The Prince of Orange’, 418; the ‘Selîmiye’, 389; ‘Tarleton’, 448; ‘Venus’, 488; flagship ‘Vladimir’, 420; Holland surrenders with flagship ‘De Vrijheid’, 396; frigate ‘Zephir’, 441. See also  Fleet

Sidney, Sir Philip, aphorism in PvW, 48
Signal-towers, 424f, 349
Silhouette, 126; portrait of PvW’s friend De Winter, 287, 323. See also  Drawing
Simonneau, Philippe, engraver, 478
Sinan, see  Mimar
Sinope, (Sinop), PvW in region, 81; Turkish navy shipyard, 300
Sivas, PvW dismisses bad stories about, 70
Skating, ice ~ in Dutch culture, 360f
Slade, Adolphus, Turks lack curiosity, 82; boat traffic on Bosphorus, 129; conflagration in Galata, 160; Turkish table manners, 165; polygamy only brings hassle, 180f; visits ‘Bagnio’ prison, 223; palace cook is chief scientist, 347

Slavery, (Pieter van Woensel against serfdom and slavery)

Western ideas about Turkish, 105; purveyors of Turkish slave market, 111–116; protested by  Van Woensel; ‘unbelievers’ no longer allowed to own slaves, 200f; Bernard: most Westerners are slaves too, 169; serfdom makes Russia ‘White-Negroland’, 173, 468; discourages procreation, 468; life of Russian serf and black African both cheap, 394; many Hungarians in Turkish, 174; abolitionism targets Negro slavery, not white slavery in Turkey, 175; Christian slaves escape to Western vessels at anchor, 448
Slaviansk, (Slovinion), archbishopric of, 362
Sloet tot Lindenhorst, see  Van Dedem (wife)
Smallpox, see  Disease
Smet, P.J., proposal for gas-lamps in Constantinople, 153
Smies, Jacob, caricaturist, 445
Smith, Thomas, anecdote about Warner and Lari, 358
Smyrna, PvW arrives by ship, 11, 13; members of Dutch community in, 60, 64f, 71, 136, 140, 156; pastor Keuns, 225; Diodato Abro dragoman in, 222; sidewalks, 38; shipping routes, 292, 63; carpets, 429; women’s fashion, 435; 443; Turkish judge hears case during First Anglo–Dutch war, 209; England confiscates returning Dutch hooker Vrouwe Susanna Maria, 60; the 1784 plague kills family Westerling, 106; full liquor licence in, 174
Sociability, programmatic Enlightenment term, 191
Society of Dilettanti, in London, 89
Socrates, ‘Socratic War’, 227ff; PvW on, 344; pre-Socratic ‘Seven Sages’, 438
Sofa, Turkish furniture, 55
Sofia, town, 322; on road to Constantinople, 57; very dirty, 90
Söğüt, borough, 43
Solon, lawmaker, 438f; praised by PvW, 210
Somer, Jan, story of ship breaking Damiette’s harbour chain, 84; Constantinople’s exterior versus interior, 90; executions, 155; epilation, 186
Sonnini, berates Western military aides to Turkey, 332
Sonnino, Angelo Petricca da, Patriarchal Vicar of Constantinople, 109
Southwark, 32
Sowden, Benjamin, 32
Spain, Turks call the Spaniards idlers, 255; 333; likely to occupy parts of Archipelago after Turkey’s demise, 382f; use of ‘Señor’ in Dutch, 289; Turkish loanword toraqui in Spanish, 119f; Ottoman ambassador to, 90; temporary marriages in Turkey, 196f; Spanish captives as slaves in Algiers, 332; Toledo once centre of medical education, 240; Averroës from Córdoba, 349; watch-tower system, 430; PvW’s death notice sent to Aubert in Cádiz, 489
Spanbroek, 35; handwritten travelogue, 46; increasingly critical of Turkish society, 76, and disrespect, 125; finds learning language easy, 79; exotic Turkish manners, 166f; dirty Sofia, 91; church-bells Plovdiv exception, 117; on temporary marriage, 197; generations without laughter in some Turkish families, 453
Spandugino, Theodore, 156
Spectatorial journals, 96f, 158, 175, 283; 317, 341; propagate social passions, 381; on Dutch funerals, 472
Spencer, John, pioneer in comparative religion, 334
Spencer Smith, John, English minister plenipotentiary in Constantinople, 427
Spinoza, 250; fundamental to our modernity, contextual Bible criticism, 328; foresees reestablished Jewish state, 334; entirely absent from PvW’s œuvre, 355f; and Koerbagh, 461; secluded by later, Christianly Dutch elites, 491
Spittler, Ludwig, Habesci is plagiarist, 182
Spon, Jacob, 62, 81; epilation, 186; purchasing Turkish manuscripts difficult, 379; waiting for favourable wind, 426
Spurring, English shipbuilder in Turkey, 389
Stadtholder, ‘in vinegarish memory of Mrs. the Ex-Stadtholderess’, 107f; ‘Right Laughable Stall-Holder’, 113; Patriots against William V, 434; 480

State, (and Authority in the work of Pieter van Woensel)

cosmopolitism versus nationalism, 3f; man’s innate longing to dominate, 79, 355ff; in secret war with own subjects, 100, 383; Enlightenment useless if the many still labour for profit of a few, 217; wisdom authorities determines nation’s happiness, 460; never lacks helpers ‘just following orders’, 387; elite is all monkey-play, 151; regents claim innate ability to govern, 318; failing institutes in  Education, and health care  Medicine; Church, Military and Politics smother Enlightenment’s lamp, 345; cunning politicians, 218; about a political ‘transubstantiation’, 204; ‘Fatherland’ rhetoric, power-hungry elites, 316; PvW rejects Grotius’ idea of blind obedience to sovereign, 164ff; Tacitus advises to endure bad rulers, 169; bloom or decline depends on neighbours, 275, who seek to harm one another, 66, 358; they should fight diseases instead of one another, 316; do empires fall effeminated by arts?, 383f; trade vital to prosperity of, 385; not respected unless convincingly armed, 301f; PvW: in cynical world Might is Right, 437; so, biological, etc. weapons lawful deterrent against aggressors, 386, 290, 356ff; provisional government, Constitution, 29; in Islam ~ and Religion by necessity one, 356ff; theocratic government curbs Ottoman sovereigns, 155ff, 163f; Ottoman administration, 209; Turks revolt if ~ breaks tacit social contract, 220f. See also  Despotism

Statistics, in PvW’s work, 446, 451, 459
Steen, Jan van der, Dutch painter, 83f; 45
Steno, (Niels Stensen), a founding father modern geology, 83
Sterne, Laurence, small streets of Paris, 36; Sternean influence on PvW, 24f, 35, 55, 434, 444, 473; 125; women’s civilising influence on men, 193; doctor Drake on lower body parts, 333; 344; soldier performs brainless, 387; like PvW admirer of Horace, 454
Stevin, Simon, inventor, scientist, Dutch language pioneer, 414
Stewart, Dugald, coins the term ‘conjectural history’, 32
Stoicism, see  Philosophy
Stone, see  Van der Steen
Storch, Heinrich, PvW borrows text, and illustration from, 475
Stürmer, Ignace Lorenz von, dragoman, 31, 430
Suchtelen, Jan Pieter van, in Russian service, 390
Suez Isthmus, economic and geopolitical importance, 384f
Sufi, mystics seek inward belief, not prescribed ritualism, 356
Suleyman (‘the Great’), sultan, tomb, 99; aqueduct, 163
Surikov, Vasily, artist, 308

Suriname, (Pieter van Woensel’s journey to and report on Suriname)

PvW’s journey, archive details, 305, 308, 468; on Surinammers and other ers, 125; mixed race marriages, 467f; on houses in Paramaribo, 92; planters seek quick fortune, 119; dumb colonists, 165; torture and executions in, 158f, 175; slave-owner Roos: average white Dutchman lives in bondage too, 172; Raye’s plantation, 173; abolitionist Kals ousted from, 175; fires partly destroy Paramaribo archives twice, 177; Joan van Woensel brings black valet from, 177; Tor despatched to, 46; (black) magic dance forbidden, 69, 190; Demerara, 176, 389. See also  Berbice,  Lammens

Suringar, family, possible source of Woenselical information, 492f
Susan, Seligman, on PvW, 341, 462
Sutherland, David, reviewer insinuates PvW plagiarised ~, 66; visits Cave of Antiparos, 81; Turkish military exercise almost inexistent, 408
Sutton, Robert, English ambassador, 133
Suvorov, Alexander, general, 284; 339; Turkish language skills, 391
Swart, Johan Isaac de, Dutch diplomat, 141
Swarte, J.L., on PvW in Navy, Russia, as secret agent, 16, 51, 57, 160, 293, 309, 482; Van Cleeff presumably printer of  Lantaarn, 489
Sweden, embassy, 78, adjacent grave Bonneval, 259; view from embassy painted by Van der Steen, 83; Orientalist Björnståhl, 86; envoy Heidenstam, 19, 114; mission of Brentano, 177; barataire Petraki, 193; battle of Poltava, 274, 410; intervention saves Sultan Selim, 332f; Russians might convert imported merchant-vessels into troopships, 375; ‘complete christianisation’ of Lapland, 22; Charles II, 107; Celsing Collection, 144; Gustav Celsing briefly arrested, 218; Russo-Swedish war, 177, 421; Turkish loanwords, 410
Swedenborg, Emanuel, planets form in gas and dusk disk, PvW influenced by, 83
Swieten, Gerard van, physician, 102
Swift, Jonathan, writer, 160, 342
Swildens, Johan Hendrik, acquaintance of ‘Hadji’ PvW, 34, 206; their correspondence, 141; most plates in his book by Wagenaar en Brouwer, 147; objections to Marine Corps proposal, 199; admirer of Grotius, 210; style, 341
Swimming, saves lives, 272; like ~ in ducklings, regents claim innate ability to govern, 318; PvW promotes resuscitation techniques and ~, 115, 381f; taught to Austrian diplomats, 382
Swinden, Jan Hendrik van, 96; Nieuwland’s will executor, 348
Sydenham, physician, praised as keen observer, 48f; translated into Arabic, 242f; 349
Sypesteyn, Cornelius van, about PvW’s  Suriname account, 176
Syria, 219; Turkish ships bound for, 292


‘Tabalahar’, 326
Tacitus, foundation myth Chalcedon, 27f; advises to endure bad rulers, 169; allows Rome’s opponents to fundamentally question it, 327
Tafur, Pero, 84, 430
Taganrog, 380
Talisman, see  Amulet
Tamerlan, defeats Ottomans, 43
Tardieu, Pierre François, mapmaker, 424, 429
Tatara, Gagara, Triakosié, Escylé, names of the four oxen of PvW’s Tartar driver, 107f
Tavernier, benefits from basic watch-making skills en route, 87; Dutch ladies help him smuggle, 132; on executions, 157
Tchoadar, see  Çuhadar
Teenstra, Marten Douwes, about PvW’s  Suriname account, 176, 341
Télémaque, didactic French novel by Fénelon, 323
Telescopes, sultans wary of peeping, 52
Tendour, Turkish heating device, 430ff. See also  Weather
Terence, comedy writer, 470, 482
Tersâne emini, Ottoman navy official, 292
Tertullian, Church Father, fanaticism of, 398f
Testa, dynasty of dragomans and diplomats; 376; Gasparo, interpreter at the Dutch embassy and PvW’s teacher for Turkish, 22; 425
Thames, river, suburbs south of, 32; 69
Theatre, the Heidenstams organise plays at Swedish embassy, 72; only performed by non-Muslims in Ottoman Turkey, 335; orta oyunu, 335; PvW annoyed by affected nasal acting in Paris, 371; fire safety measures in Russian ~, 434; Russian ~ right next to church, 338; Calvinist fanatics claim fatal ~ fire God’s vengeance, 338; risqué opera in Amsterdam, 470; PvW’s career lambasted as, 479
Thelott, Johann Gottfried, artist, 144
Theophilus, bishop, attempts to resurrect dead, 402
Therapia, suburb, 39; 429
Thessaloniki, ‘Salonika’ carpets, 429
Thevenot, 155
Thevet, 189
Thomas, Antoine Léonard, considered a ‘matchless’ writer by PvW, 463
Thomson, Charles, 87
Thornton, Thomas, 22; Turkish can be learned in four months, 79; Turks are raised in contempt for others, 127; knows identity plagiarist ‘Habesci’, 182; married to Armenian Sophia Zohrab, 182; Turkish war law only fine on paper, 437f
Thunmann, Johann Erich, translation by Frieseman, 400
Tiel, among first towns with modern cemetery, 97
Tijl Uilenspiegel, (Till Owlglass), motto to present edition, Part II; this editor’s school, 114; Koerbagh compares Bible stories to ~, 461; Pierlala, 482
Timariot, fief holder, 313f. See also  Zaim
Timoni, Antoine, physician in Constantinople, PvW about, 434; polygamy quickly shows if man is infertile, 463
Timoni, Emanuele, physician in Constantinople, smallpox inoculation, 434
Timor, Dutch target Portuguese in, 313
Tindal, Nicholas, editor and translator of Cantemir, 124, 219, 364; 372
Titsingh, A.A., see  Van Kinsbergen
Toderini, vif; met with PvW, vii; 164f; 184; French translation by  Cournand, and German by Hausleutner, 369; much borrowing by PvW who disagrees on Turkish science, 207, 244, 362; catalogue of Turkish books, 210; Turks value and reward poetry, 254; on music, 260ff, and cartography, 291; on Ottoman ballooning, 37; story about Saladin, 303; Turks destroy mosaics, 111; Turkish timepieces, 117; Turks cannot accomplish major projects, 163; visits workshop painter Menasi, 188, 372; dragoman takes opium to palliate palace visit, 225; 331; 362; fruitless search for Ottoman erotica, 371; on Turkish printing press, 374, 397f; is shown special incendiary arrow, 395; Turkish artillery, 409; chess, 473
‘Tokatlı’ Mustafa Efendi, physician, 242
Toledo, medical school, 240
Tondu, Achille, astronomer, French military mission to Turkey, 424, 429
Tophane, suburb, 30f; artillery foundry, and public baths, 70f; 89; famously exact sundial, 117; signalling system, 431
Tor, Joost Frederik, Dutch diplomat, malversations, friend and important informant of PvW, xvi, 84; donates painting by Van der Steen, 84; 46, 62; in Marseilles, 90, 443; to Turkey together with ambassador Van Dedem, 142f; monitors state of Turkish navy, 389; marriage, 46, 425; country house, 118; on enormous Turkish cannons, 432
Toraquis, opium eaters, 58, Turkish loanword in Don Quixote, 119f
Tott, Baron de, PvW (following Toderini) critical of his Memoirs, 19ff, 55f, 105ff, finds his language skills incredible, 21, 76, 213; on Constantinople, 35f; 39; yellow slippers anecdote, 174; on despotism, 56f, 207; Janissary Agha as Generalissimo, 219f; on temporary marriage, 196, 198; PvW rejects his (translator’s) view on renegades, 221, and military thesis, 274; PvW agrees ‘for once’, 284, but otherwise dislikes his boasting, 352; private quarrel with  Peyssonnel, 77; artillery instruction to Turks, 409; misplaced coastal defence castles, 338; 351; Voltaire berates military aides to Turkey like ~, 332f; demonstrates Turks electricity experiments, 361; notorious for felling beautiful trees, 56, 427; in situ drawing of Burgas aqueduct, 471f; the Crimea, 185, its geology, 82f
Toulon, PvW in 9, 423; galley slaves, 223; French shipbuilders to Turkey, 401
Toulouse, execution of Calas, 158
Tournefort, expedition, 10, 33; doubts disinterested Russian help to Greeks, 405; compares Seven Towers to Bastille, 107; Turks prefer corpulent women, 184; on enormous Turkish cannons, 432; nation’s character shaped by nurture, 466; men and women all together around Turkish heating device, 478; plagiarised by Frieseman, 423
Toussaint, military Bosphorus projects, 427
Trabzon, on PvW’s return journey, 307; last remnant of Byzantine Empire, 325; 447
Trapeza, Cape, (Barber’s Cape), 432
Travel, merits and demerits, 1ff; is a loneliness, and permanent alienism, 5ff; untravelled person is unsophisticated, 92; offers useful foreign practices, 138, 198; Remarks is ‘voyage philosophique’, 11, and ‘paysage intériorisé’ as its mirrors PvW’s worsening mood, 482f; by air, Montgolfier balloon, 36, 57; ‘Ars Apodemica’, 56, 370; PvW prefers destiny over route, 57; travelogues unsuited for personal trivia, 66; 18th century replete with Turkey travelogues, 69; ‘iconographie viatique’ of Turkey, 90
Trebizond, see  Trabzon
Treves, physician, 191, 308
Trieste, quarantine in, 439
Troilo, Franz Ferdinand, ‘different countries different customs’, 167
‘Trojan Horse’, see  France
Troy, 350
Truguet, Laurent Jean-François, military mission, 424, 427 448; manual translated in Turkish, 376
Trusler, John, 102
Tübingen, university town would fit in Sultan’s palace grounds, 110
Turgot, 455
Turkish language, PvW takes lessons, 22; on learning ~, 79f; Björnståhl’s teacher, 336, practice with Turkish women impossible, 80; folk etymology for Fanal (fena + yer, ‘bad place’), 123; use of imperatives, 124; requires knowledge of Arabic and Persian, 212; indispensable for Western doctor in Turkey, 239; PvW’s word pun ‘otouren’, 125; philology in Ottoman Empire, 311; medical vocabulary, 350; Arabic-Turkish dictionary, 374; Suvorov’s language skills, 391; anecdote of terrible misunderstanding, 431; sign language, 466; dirty words, swearing, 118, 469

Turks, (and ideas about ~), (Pieter van Woensel on Islamic Turkey and the Turks)

indolent, 26, 36, 39, 131, 268f; fatally behind in war tactics, 277f, fight with blind resignation to fate, 386; are unmilitary people, 378; very modest book production, 210, 268ff; underachievers in science, 206ff; prefer astrology, 252, and alchemy, 253; abhor images and destroy Byzantine mosaics, 54; do not use bells, 55; despise others as ‘infidels’, 93ff, 63ff, 220f, yet lower eyes with Christian woman, 125; dislike selling manuscripts to Christians, 378; hate the West, 127, but less rude to foreign doctors, 126; do not serve under un-Turk, 65; abhor Shiite Persians, 106; call religious fanatics hypocrits, 112; must convert ‘unbelievers’, 221; brief impression of houses, kiosks, 76f; heating devices, 430ff; sign language with domestics, 407f; table manners, and meals, 96ff; Ramadan is not fasting but postponed eating, 65; hardly eat fish, 73f; opium (ab)use, 58; Dutch and ~ resist innovation, 91; their dress, 92ff; circumcised boys in Sunday best, 223; always armed, 300f; their cemeteries more hygienic than graves in church, 40, and sermons more useful, 226; less rabble in Turkey than in West, 100f; PvW visits private houses and harems, 101ff, 117f; unhurried way of life, 102, 378; human life span ideally sixty to seventy years, 314; have no lawyers, 104, 227ff; Turkophobia in Renaissance, 149; victims of Western prejudices, 86, 92, 104, and hubris, 165; no slavish character, 115, 278; prefer corpulent women, 123; elegant, well-shaped people, 130f; aversion to cursing and swearing, 411; fond of nicknames, 255; people of probity, 176, and courage, 131; meritocracy, 208f, 412f; contrast with noisy Greeks, 388f, 419, 451; abusive sultans are deposed, 187; the humiliated dragomans hate, 203; fanaticised by ‘la patrie en danger’, 316; not encumbered by Evangelical Law, 361; list by  Galland of 166 things they do differently. See also  Muhammedans,  Women

Turnbull, Andrew, physician, English consul Smyrna, plan to transpose Greek world from Ottoman Empire to United States, 465
Turrettini, Jean Alphonse, theologian, tutor of Vernet, 437
Tuuk, Jan van der, famous bedroom scandal, similar to PvW anecdote, 192
Tydeman, Henrik Willem, attributes Monitor series to PvW, 19f, 492f
Typography, PvW personally involved, 474f; use of blackletter, π2v, xx, 445, 481; his footnote apparatus, 10, 140, entirely changed in Remarks II, 347, 389; wrong footnote numbering, 168, 208, 347, 426, 465; continuing parallel footnotes, 211; enigmatic signs, π2v; a fist begins and ends Remarks I, iii, 454; fist, 230; intentional blank spaces, iiif, 80, 444; use of dots and dashes, v, and in  Names, and ‘for ears polite’, 146, 147, 255, 262, 279, 424, 27, ‘rect . m’, 114; liftable, glued-on paper flaps in Lantaarn cartoons, 28, 445; on swirls and ‘frilly bits’, 481; play with punctuation, xx, brackets and stress, 480, and font sizes, 355, 395, and letters upside down, 417; use of Greek, or Greek font, 131, 207, 411; Sternean influence, 25; (bibliophile) publishers Didot, 71, Elzevier, Barbou, Baskerville, 268; history of Arabic printing in West, 233, 349, 374f; Laban Kaptein’s Dürr-i meknûn edition first academic publication in history to use software-‘animated’ Arabic calligraphy, 375; Marsigli’s pun with historiated initials, 379f



‘Uilenstein’, 22
Ukraine, plague in, 371;  Cherson; Perekop Isthmus, 376
Ulema, body of religious authorities, 153ff, 160ff, 183ff, 233, 238; support printing press project, 374f; polygamous ulema unpopular, 178; envy influence of Harem women, 216
‘Urians Reise’, PvW partly cites, 23
Urquhart, David, ‘different countries different customs’, 167
Usher, Bishop, Annals of the world, 459
Utrecht, Peace Treaty of, 133


‘V.N.’, 252
Vaderlandsche Letteroefeningen, 119; 26; 158; read but disliked by PvW, 450; positive review of PvW’s (anonymous) Précis, 43; review of Dutch Lüdeke translation, 220; positive review of PvW’s (anonymous) Don Quichot, 450; negative reviews of Lantaarn issues, 450; damning review of PvW’s Seaman’s medical guide, 293, 314, 350, 354; installments from Toderini in, 313; lemmeta from Encyclopédie, 326f; 349
Vaillant, sea captain, 423
Vakf, pious endowment, 189; 375
St. Valentine, 125
Valk, Karel, Remonstrant minister, 337
Valle, Pierro della, 90; much borrowing from Gilles, 432
‘Vânḳûlî’, dictionary, 374
Vanmour, Jean Baptiste, artist, in Constantinople, 121, 135; view from Dutch embassy, 139; water carrier, 412; a Turkish funeral, 485
Varage, commander of Russian flotilla, 421
Varna, locals still recall Ovid’s voice, ix; strategic importance, 429
Vasıf Efendi, Ottoman ambassador to Spain, 90
Vauban, 391
Vaughan, Thomas, Turkish grammar, 78
Vavassore, Giovanni Andrea, Venetian engraver, cartographer, map of Constantinople, 88
Vecht, Jacobus van der, minister to Dutch Smyrna congregation, 63
Veliyettin, Shaykh al-Islam, 352
Velse, C.H., physician and pharmacies inspector, combined estate auction with PvW’s, 86, 279; 372, 480; conditions thereof disputed in court, 490
Venice, 66; is aristocracy, 137; envoy’s residence, 79; likely to occupy parts of Archipelago after Turkey’s demise, 382f;  Barbaro;  Candia
Venturi, Franco, on Italian versions of PvW’s Russia book, 446
Venus, goddess, 415
Verhaast, Magdalena, friend of Paape, 342
Ver Huell, Carel Hendrik, PvW and, 309
Ver Huell, Christiaan Anthonie, and  Van Kinsbergen, 400
Verne, Jules, 37
Vernet, Claude Joseph, painter, 63
Vernet, Jacob, Protestant theologian, seminary student PvW’s work on, 437
Versluys, Cornelis, PvW’s contribution in album amicorum of student friend, 228, 495
Vesim, see  Abbas Vesim
Vianen, double transi tomb in, 114
Vidin, town, 315
Vienna, on the Constantinople route, 7; 66; Joseph II dies in, 273; Turks will not besiege it a third time, 276
Viguier, Pierre-François, Turkish grammar, 78
Vinkeles, Reinier, artist, 115, 160
Virgil, quotations, 210, 407; 366, 396, 449; translations by  Voulgaris
Vivisection, proposal by PvW, and  Clerc, for human, 159, 435f
Vliet, Hendrik van, painter, 98
Volney, Constantin-François, Orientalist, rebukes ‘Turk-lovers’, 76; Turkish disrespect to foreigners, 125; foresees Turkey’s imminent demise, 444
Voltaire, French verse, 5; on the Serail, 32f; spreads Newton’s physics, 251f; correspondence with Newtonian ’s-Gravesande, 86; corrector for Frederick the Great’s French, 257; in PvW, 33, 86; PvW’s writings first Dutch Voltairean prose, 131; rehabilitation for Calas, 158; 184; berates Western military advisors to Turkey, 332f; virtuous pagans redeemed too, 337; 344, 355; 464
Volterra, Meshulam de, in Egypt, 92; executions, 156; Muhammedan and Jewish table manners, 165
Vooys, Cornelis de, on PvW’s language register, 50
Vos, Jan, rowdy theatre productions, 65, 470
Vossius, Isaac, Dutch scholar, ‘believed everything except Bible’, 461
Vos van Steenwijk, Carel de, politician, 417
Voulgaris, Eugenios, 21, 362; 427f; key role in Greek cultural revolution, 464
Vrolik, Gerardus, physician, owner (and reviewer?) of copy of Raadgeevingen, 309



‘P.B. van W.’, emancipatory pamphlet Ten betooge, 193
Wagenaar, Pieter, artist, π2v; 15, 17; sentenced for homosexuality, 134; plates for Remarks, 147, 471f
Wagenvoort, Maurits, journalist, visit to Smyrna, 64f; local Dutch colony is incrowd, 136; on executions, 156
Wallachia, and Moldavia, Principalities ruled by Greek princes or ‘Hospodars’, 63, 195; both end up colonies of Russia, 383; instrumental in Turkish fuelling divisive Greek intrigues, 465
Wandsbecker Bothe, poem in German, ii; xvif. See also  Claudius
Warner, Levinus, Dutch diplomat, Orientalist, bibliophile, 376; anecdote about possessive Turkish men and, 355; anecdote about Ottoman atheist Lari and, 358
Warnery, Charles de, 220, 410
Wars, soldiers are unscrupulous pawns, 43, 270, 278f; sultans cannot start ~ without fatwa, 170; Turkish generalissimus, 186; Turkey’s socio-economic problems due to constant (Russian) ~, 44, 62, 267, 153; Russo-Turkish conflict 1773, 377; Louis XIV introduced gaudy uniforms, 273; art of war not affected by flourishing arts, 274; Turks fatally behind in tactics, 277f, 301f, 411f; they dislike drills and manœuvres, 322f; devastating Russian weapons, 289f; Turks could beat Russia if better trained, 409; PvW on law of nature, self-preservation, weapons of mass destruction, 356–373; preemptive war, deterrence, 439; wonder weapons against aggressors, 386, 290, 356ff; First Anglo–Dutch War, anecdote, 209; Fourth Anglo–Dutch War, 11, 433; numerous Habsburg-Ottoman ~, 415; treason behind Prut Peace Treaty, 218; Battle of Petrovaradin, 221; Treaty of Passarowitz, 220; Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, 319, 409; battle of  Poltava; naval battle of  Ochakov; PvW on persecution and ~ of religion, 170; he is not a man of the sword, 443; West harms itself with military advisors to Turkey, 333; Turkish breach of unwritten rules, 394; Ottoman Islamic war law, 437. See also  Artillery,  Fleet
Wassenaer Obdam, Lord Twickel, Carel George van, diplomat, correspondence with Van Dedem, 142, 168, 412
Water, Jona Willem te, on burial practices, 97
Watson, Sophia, (pseud.), exposes Lord Baltimore’s London harem, 179
Weather, historic materials for Turkish meteorological database, 68, 477; heating in winter, 429f. See also  Climate
Wedding, see  Marriage
Wegman, Adrianus, silversmith, The Hague, buys items from PvW’s estate, 489
Weiler, Frederik de, Dutch ambassador, 46, 225
Weiße, Christian Felix, writer, tragedy Calas, 158
Wesselo, Jan Jerphaas, 10, 24; for PvW ‘Potemkin’ is unclean word, 27; PvW’s critique of slavery, etc. is his most important prose, 175; 206
The West, willingly submits to Turkish humiliations, 126f; unhygienic burials, 40; like the Turks often more than one wife, 116; often ill-informed about Turkey, 85f, 190, and full of prejudices, 104–121; Müteferrika advises Muhammedans to emulate, not despise, 94; Turks hate ~ more than do the Arabs, 127; unique tradition of textual and self-criticism, 327ff; harms itself with military advisors to Turkey, 333, 404
Westerling, Smyrna plague kills family ~, 106
West Indies, Brentano brings slave from, 114; voyage  Groen. See further  Suriname
Westphalia, bad image of seasonal workers in Republic, 96, and deformed by hard work, 129f
Wheler, George, 62, 81; epilation, 186
Wichers, Jan Gerhard, governor of Suriname, 176
Wielen, Nicolaas Stalpert van der, 88
Wieringen, PvW’s report on navy quarantine, 288, 440f
Wieringen, Cornelis Claesz van, painter, 84
Wijk bij Duurstede, 250
Willet, Franciscus Eduardus, physician, medical inspector, 479
William V,  Stadtholder, (113), 434
Willigen, Adriaan van der, a founding father of Woenseliana, 19f, 491f; welcomes PvW’s ebullition against religious hatred, 460
Willing, 141
Willis, Richard, English merchant, 27; acquaintance of PvW, landowner in Crimea, 145f; 425
Wilmot, Martha, friend of Princess Dashkova, 342
Winckelhaackius, Guilielmus, joke name, 481
Winter, Hendrik de, brother of vice-admiral De Winter, soldier, friend of PvW, 285ff; his silhouette portrait, 323; biographical sketch and archive sources, 416–422; (anonymised) story of his shipwreck, 361ff; private correspondence with Irhoven, 341, 418ff, and letter to Van Hogendorp, 419; dislikes  Swildens, 341

Winter, Jan Willem de Winter, brother of Hendrik de Winter, vice-admiral, marshal, approbation for PvW’s Seaman’s medical guide, 287; PvW’s owns his portrait, 392; surrenders with flagship, 397
Wit, Frederick de, Atlas de Wit, 160
Withers, Robert, plagiarises Bon’s account, 87, 202
Witsen, Nicolaes, 15, 169
Wittman, William, physician, in Constantinople, 348; visits launch Turkish war ship with Lord Elgin, 363; 430; provides meteorological observations, 477
Woeligheid, Wanderlust, 7
Woensel, Dutch village < theophoric place-name Wodan’s grove, 458

Woensel, Elizabeth van, (‘Betje’; altern. Elisabeth),

sister of PvW, baptism, marriage to  De Man with children, death, archive details, 331, 488ff; artist, collaboration with Ploos van Amstel, 308, 371 [; see also lemma in database RKD – Nederlands Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis]; homestead ‘Den Draak’, 429, 488f; handles legal and funeral issues with brother following PvW’s death, 20, 487ff; writes her name with z, 489

Woensel, Joan van (senior), PvW’s father; several publications, 104f, in French, 367; reported for never attending church, 322; death, 331
Woensel, Joan van, brother of PvW; map of Black Sea, 292; brings black valet back from Suriname, 177; marriage to  Anna Helena Kaupe, children, archive details, 359, 492; gives Dutch authorities complementary copy of PvW’s Remarks I–II, 396; map of Bosphorus after  Kauffer, 424; writings on signalling, 430; handles legal and funeral issues with sister following PvW’s death, 20, 487ff

Woensel, Joan Hendrik, son of PvW’s brother Joan, archive details, 359
Woensel, Joan Pieter, son of PvW’s brother Joan, archive details, 359, art work, 371
Woensel, Justus van, brother of PvW, baptised 1760, navy career, archive details, 331, 488
Woensel, Margareta van, sister of PvW, baptised 1739, archive, 488
Woensel, Margareta Clementia van, sister of PvW, baptised 1756, archive, 488

Petronella van Woensel, painter,

daughter of PvW’s brother Joan, baptism, 371f; family relations, 359f, 492; (international) exhibitions, 371, but little remembered, 492; [see also lemma in database of RKD – Nederlands Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis, The Hague]; contribution to Kantelaar’s album amicorum, 360
Woensel, Pieter van, paternal uncle of PvW, married to  Elizabeth Rentinck, 488
Woensel, Pieter van, brother of PvW, baptised 1743, archive, 488
Woensel, Pieter van, brother of PvW, baptised 1744, archive, 488

Woensel, Pieter van,

See also  Diseases,  Language,  Remarks I,  Typography, and the present edition’s Bibliography and Supplement Bibliography

personal details of Pieter van Woensel

portrait, π2v; pseudonym  Hekim-Bachi Amurath-Effendi; father Joan is publishing physician, 104f, and inactive church member, 221; anecdote, 40; mother Zusanna Margaretha Zandwijk, 322; siblings, cousins, see various  Van Woensel lemmata; family is  Remonstrants; intermarried with  Kantelaar,  Kaupe,  Van Limborch,  Van der Meersch,  Reisig, and  De Riemer families; hometown Haarlem, 84, 361, (491); eternal bachelor, 195, 407; near-sighted, 447; artificial teeth, 186; perhaps dysnumeric, 329, 404, 409; house in Amsterdam, 173; St. Petersburg, injured leg, 487f; The Hague, fractured leg, gangrene, 487, death and funeral, assets and liabilities, estate, auction, archive details, 97, 195, 292, 372, 392f, 447, 487–494

personality of Pieter van Woensel

irreligious, atheist, 34, 340, 343ff, 461ff; repudiates miracles, superstition and organised  Religion,  Bible; his  Caricatures; partial to  Scatology, and erotica,  Sexuality; player in State lottery, 195; writes in irreverent Dutch Enlightenment tradition, 200, and is self-proclaimed lantern-bearer ( Lantaarn), 231; is cosmopoliet, 3f, 55; and Cervantista,  Don Quixote; influence of  Erasmus,  Montaigne,  Wolff, and  Sterne; but  Spinoza strikingly absent; admirer of  Buffon; Motto’s chosen from  Bacon, and  Bonnot de Mably, and  admires Horace;  Locke; subscribes to  Fénelon’s ideas, 323; influenced by  Grotius; denounces  Antisemitism, 67, 105f, 308, serfdom and  Slavery, 107f, 112, 166, 119, 173; self-professed contrarian, 9, 56, 199; an unwelcome Cassandra, 454, and musical instrument out of tune with society, xx; driven by love of truth and mistrust of  State and authorities, 173f, 150, 351; cynic, disciple of Diogenes, 9; sarcasm, ‘Menippean’ elements, 344; dislikes Stoicism, 47, 54; mocks Sentimentalism, 65; meritocrat, against aristocracy, 209, 413, 318; man has innate dark side, 137ff, 172, 356, 387; does free will exist?, 462

Woenselian themes in the work of Pieter van Woensel

‘counter-culture’, 10f, 491; honours Renaissance, 30; individual liberty and freedom of expression versus  State and  Religion, 170, 356, 398; evil of war, 43, 278, 355ff, 443

contacts of Pieter van Woensel

Dutch elite, 309; Princess Dashkova, 342; xviif, 108, 114, 252; 27, 34, 96, 123, 142, 475, 489; Raye too ?, 173; female friends, 231, 434; a noble lady, 231;  Hendrik de Winter; 362; excellent communication channels with Russia, 476

study and career of Pieter van Woensel

study at Remonstrant Seminary, expelled, readmitted, quits, 216, 122, 322; exams in German, Greek, Latin, philosophy, 122, 322, 437; study of medicine Leiden, dissertation, Gaubius, 342f; essay in prize contest, 150; some medical writings outlive him, 490; military doctor in St. Petersburg, 103, purchase galliot, 402; navy doctor, Battle of Dogger Bank, 433; abridged reworkings of  Raynal; journey to Turkey ( see separate section below); writes for Schoonhovensche Courant, 429, 488;  Remarks I;  Lantaarn series; journey to  Suriname, archive details, 468; Paramaribo Warehouse, 176; among the inland Indians, 191; leper-house ‘Voorzorg’, 175, 468; in Demerara, 176; among candidates for editor-in-chief position of Amsterdamsche Stadscourant, 496; secret agent in Russia, 16, 482, and correspondence with Foreign Affairs, 16, 55, 57, 201, 206, 213, 370, 386, 393, 395ff, 462, 482; at times excellent income, 57; trips to Paris, 38f, 92f, 95f, 371, (and see  France); reworking of  Don Quixote; medical doctor Amsterdam Admiralty, 309, 445; accused of lacking qualifications and integrity, 479; correspondence with Navy Board, 291ff; proposal of ‘rental wives’ for marines, 198ff, 457; at Louis Napoleon’s court in The Hague, 206; first Medical Inspector General of Dutch Navy, 9, 51, 199, 288, 309; reports on  Wieringen, Helvoetsluys, 441, Den Helder, 51; many of his works appeared anonymously, 13, 43

science, medicine and education in the life and work of Pieter van Woensel

on electricity and magnetism, 12, 102, 251; uses electricity to treat gout, 425; optics, 16; telescopes, 110; hydrology, 28f; physical experiments offer insight, not recreation, 361; natural rarities collection, 434; consults  Linné; influenced by  Boerhaave; embraces  Swedenborg (-Laplace) hypothesis, 83, 321; chemical blood analysis, ‘genetics’, 453, 408; statistics, 459; wear and tear on arteries limit life span to ca. sixty years, 314f; germ theory, 46, 357ff; against Dutch swaddling mania, 424; criticism of medical colleagues, 237, 244ff, and Amsterdam Collegium Medicum, 432f; burials inside of churches unhygienic, 40; urges better personal hygiene, 127, 471, 437, 484; prefers dietary therapy and household medicine, 487; proposes human vivisection, 159f; treatise on the plague, 47; about diploma mills, fraud, 237, and dismal state of Dutch education, 311; vital trade requires university chair economics, 451; one should acknowledge consulted authors, xv; no author is infallible, 316, 351; people must see and think for themselves, 84f, and always check sources, 17, 63, 189f; poor opinion of contemporary philosophy, 355; art class essential in education, 151, 371; more intellectual stimulation needed for girls, 476; religion’s preponderance is causing Dutch intellectual slump, 211 337f; not religion but medicine improves life, 340

journey to Turkey by Pieter van Woensel

‘Wanderlust’, 7; in Toulon with  Van Kinsbergen, 9, 423; recommended to Dutch embassy by  Hooft; from Marseilles to  Smyrna, 11, 13f, 142; sails to  Constantinople, 14, 16ff; outings to Princes’ Islands, etc., with members of Dutch community, 118; Turkish lessons, 22; excursion to Cyanean rocks, 24ff; eighteen months in Constantinople, 88, 202; sees pest houses and bedlams, no rabid dogs, 147; description of Dutch embassy, 80; access to (documents in) Chancellery, 408; many visits to Arsenal, 293f; treats patients, 72, 141f, 222; not fond of Turkish food, 97, or music, 262; no positive impression of the modern Greeks, 392, 406f; his personal contacts with Turks, 101ff, 117, 239, 242, 327, 408, and local women, 117f, 133, 136f, whose veil he curses, 125; jocular oath of sexual abstinence (only) in Constantinople, 136; meetings with ambassador  A[inslie], 449,  Brentano, 114, and  Bulgakov, 264,  Panchaud, 123,  Toderini, vii,  Tor, 84; is privy to (confidential) military information on Turkey, xv, 280ff, 327, 351ff; departure welcomed by hostile ambassador  Van Dedem, 142, 481; with English group to Isfahan, 223; six month journey through Anatolia, 199, 308, 80; centre of public attention in Bolu, 179; Sivas, 70; Diyarbakır, 189f, 206, 346; weariness, 482, and change of plans at River Tigris, 483; to Black Sea coast, 195f; as a doctor in Erzurum, 16, 126f; introduced to buttermilk made from dried yoghurt, 147; bed adventures, 194; climb Pontiac Mountains, 91, 483; elated to see Black Sea again and be able to leave, 450, 482; in plague-stricken Trabzon, 447; Sinop region, 81, 404; often cooked his own meals on return journey, 306f

the Crimea (visited by Pieter van Woensel)

in quarantine near Sevastopol, 108; 170f; feasts with local Greek skippers, 423; on local health and drinking water problems, 162; travel by ox-cart with Tartar driver, 107f; Karasubazar, 124; visits to Willis’ estate on river Alma, 146; local winter weather, 397; loathes Prince Potemkin, 286; in the Catherine-Slav governorate, 62; Kremenchuk, 433; publications in  Russia, 143, 342

on West and East (in the work of Pieter van Woensel)

opportunistic West lack self-respect vis-à-vis Turkey, 66, where Christians are basically treated like dogs, 170f; criticism of Turkish despotism often ill-founded, 105, 148ff, 201; Western prejudices against Turks, 86, 92, 104–116, 200ff; hopes for Turkey to prosper and progress, 214, regrets its looming demise, 327, 380; gives horoscopy for Ottoman Empire, 373

Woensel, Susanna Maria van, daughter of PvW’s brother Joan, family relations, 359f, marriage to  Joan Rouffaer, 492; artist, 371; contribution to Kantelaar’s album amicorum, 360
‘Woenselius’, mock name given to PvW by adversary Bosch, 20, 343, 462, 479
Wolff, Betje, writer, 17; and PvW congenial, 49; 61; on burning unoriginal books, 316; party in ‘Socratic War’, 337; cottage, 344; epistolary novel with Aagje Deken, 461f, passim
Wolff, Christian, acknowledged influence on PvW, 210f; promotes Leibniz’ monadology, 466

Women, (in the work of Pieter van Woensel)

yes-men and yes-sisters, vi; whining ‘old women of either sex’, 425; Marcus Aurelius’ dislikes might offend, 7; character and sexuality of Turkish, 116ff; Lady Montagu: male travellers report on Muslimas they never met, 202; Turkish ~ talkative, 80, but practising Turkish with them impossible, 80; in Crimea ~ are much more open, 124; Turkish ~ smoke and chew gum, 186, illustrations of them ~ smoking, playing music, and board game, 473; physical aspects of Turkish, 123ff; many are obese, 123; bathing affects their figure, 126; breasts, 480; their gait is not elegant, 123; Muhammedans are very possessive, 249; so Westerners use telescope to watch the ~ from afar, 109f; Niebuhr sees naked circumcised girl, 335; make-up, 124, 437ff, and epilation, 126ff; social life of Turkish, 132ff; the West too knows buying and selling of, 169; PvW’s contacts with Turkish ~, 117f, 133, 136; have civilising influence on men, 134; on Turkish womanisers, 193f; medical treatment of (palace), 141ff; enema anecdote, 114; a Greek physician visits ailing Turkish lady, 184; obstetrician almost taboo for Turkish, 248; public outcry after stoning of, 157; influence of harem, 196; favourite Sultana, 317; Greek ~ are particularly lively and fond of stories, 419; ordinary Greek girls hardly receive education, 425ff; (Greek) mothers make children religiously silly, 475; Greek splendour mostly exhibited in clothes of, 434ff; inauspicious praise of Greek girl’s beauty exorcised by bossom spitting, 440; Constantinople sets women’s fashion, Smyrna follows, 436f; ornamented headwear, 441; PvW curses the veil, 125; Dutch ladies smuggle items past Turkish Customs who dare not frisk them, 132; Western ladies attend Turkish meetings disguised as man, 73; bedroom scandal anecdote, 192; emancipation, feminism, 193; Lady Craven: Turkish ~ expected to produce many little Musselmans, Christian ~ to embrace virginity, 201f; separate crowd of women at launch Turkish war ship, 363; Groen’s colonial adventures with ~ of all colours, 468; actresses in Dutch risqué pagan opera, 470; Dutch writers and lady friends, 342; reviewer: PvW unfit for decent, 198f; ~ loose all rationality pursuing motherhood, 471; swaddling mania of Dutch, 424; PvW recommends Turkish coal-pan for Dutch, 432f; PvW urges more personal hygiene, 127, 437, 471, 484; gynarchy hindered Russia’s development, 179f; French Revolution’s Jacobins disapprove female political influence, 216; old woman as the archetypical dissident, 185; anecdote of girl able to lift ox, 128. See also  Sexuality
Wood, Robert (‘Palmyra’), 32, 90


X, professor ~, 363
Xerxes, son of  Darius I; De Bruyn’s name hewn into Gate of, 81
Xylander, see  Holtzmann


Yazıcıoğlu, Mehmed, shrine of, 318. See also  Ahmed Bican
Yedikule, 50
Yemen, Niebuhr in, 110
Yeni Hisar, 351
Yeniköy, 348
Yerasimos, Stéphane, 80
Yirmisekiz Çelebi Mehmed Efendi, first Ottoman ambassador to France, 353, 374
Yoros Castle, (‘Genuese’), 427
Young, Edward, citation, xiii; on burning unoriginal books, 316
Ypey, Annaeus, church historian, against Deism, 111


Zaandam, Turkish gardens like ones in, 55; Turkish ships resemble flutes from, 295; well-managed companies, 414; local bookery with Greek façade inscription, 207f
Zaim, holder of very large fief, 313f. See also  Timariot
‘Zampara çelebi’, (T.) womaniser, 193
Zandwijk, (Zandwyk), Zusanna Margaretha, mother of PvW, 322; her mother, 488
Zeebout, Ambrosius, 136, 157; on temporal marriage, 196; 312; explanation of recent loanword storage-‘magazine’, 403
Zeidler, Andreas, 375
Zeno, 56
‘Zoetekoek, H.’, joke name, 482
Zuylen, Belle van, Dutch feminist, style Fnamed with PvW’s, 343
Zwager, Haijo, on PvW’s importance for modern Dutch prose, 10, 50; 51, Potemkin satire is his best, 131; 211


Notice that in the original text of the edition those page numbers that refer to Kaptein’s facsimile translation of Pieter van Woensel, Remarks I (Part I of the Kaptein edition) are in bold. Such markings have disappeared in the present, plain HTML text. For disambiguation, the reader should consult the actual edition Part III. Also, a few, minor, changes have been made to the text of this Index of Laban Kaptein, Pieter van Woensel, Remarks, in order to better adapt it to Internet search functions.

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