Antichrist index

Laban Kaptein, Apocalypse and the Antichrist Dajjal in Islam (Dutch 1997; English edition 2011).

(In this plain HTML text of the Index to Laban Kaptein, Apocalypse and the Antichrist Dajjal in Islam, all diacritic signs and italics have been discarded. For the proper transcription consult the original publication.)

A

Abcad, chronogram, 222 ‘Abd Allah ibn Umar, transmitter of traditions, 230 ‘Abd Allah ibn Salam, Jewish scribe who questions the prophet, 89f; recognises prophet by flawless countenance, 111 ‘Abd al-Razzaq, transmitter of traditions, 91 Abram, sacrifice to confirm Covenant with God, 124 Abu Bakr, ‘the very picture of a life-less’, 16; visits new-born Dajjal, 85 Abu Hurayra, tradition on war at sea, 20 Abu Ishaq, Fall of Constantinople and pivotal role for Ishaqiyye Order, 40 Abu Ishaq, transmitter of traditions, 122 Abu Said al-Khudri, on Dajjal’s being partly blind, 111; on Mahdi being from Fatima’s lineage, 175, 230 Abyssinia, tribe from destroys Mecca, 75, 201 ‘Aca’ibü ‘l-makhluqat, by Ahmed Bijan, also printed, 4; Bijan writes, 30 Acts, returning Christ and theophany, 128 Âdam, 115 Aden, Mahdi crosses the, 173 Aeneas, healed by Paul, 131 Afiq, Dajjal possibly defeated at, 131 Ahmed Bijan, see Bijan Ahmed Yesevi, 16 Ahmediyye, erroneously ascribed to Bijan, 38 Ahval-i qiyamet (Leiden MS), focus on selected eschatological aspects, 58; narration wants improvement, 86, 88; many details on Dajjal, 118 Aisha (‘Â’isha), upset about naked Resurrection, 101 Aq Shemseddin, famous Bayramiyye ascetic, 13; lean as a rake, 17; successor to Haci Bayram, and Sheikh to Mehmed II, 17 ‘Alaeddin ‘Ali Beg, 56 ‘Alamat (ayat), Signs and Portents of the End of Time, 57 Aleppo, infidels chase Muslims to, 167. See also A’maq ‘Ali, executed, 78, 171 Allegory, interpretation of eschatology, 22 fn 75 Amadeo IV, Duke of Savoy, 10 A’maq, 167 fn 24; 220; advance of Beni Asfar, 229. See also Aleppo ‘Amuriyye, 228 and fn 3 ‘Anaq, mother of giant Udj, 119 Angel(s), of the grave, 58f fn 9; carry off Dajjal, 95; prevent Dajjal from entering holy cities, 112, 181; carry returning ‘Îsa, 127f, 185; pile sinners layer upon layer, 211; only the Archangels remain and Azrail’s suicide, 205ff, 226f; drive sinners forward, 213. See also Azrail, Djebrail, Israfil, Mikail, Munkar, Ruman Animal(s), see Beast(s) Ankara, Salih’s connection with, 11, 13; Mehmed’s stay in, 13 fn 18; citizens know Muhammediyye by heart, 29 Antichrist, imitator of Christ, 85f, 109; human figure posing as a God, 103; physical appearance, 110; bears ‘~’ sign on forehead, 110; giant, 117

Apocalypticism,

absent in Bijan’s tale of Constantinople, ix, 39f; revision needed of current approach, 45f; supposed factor in Ottoman revolts, 46f; Yerasimos’ view concerning Bijan, 48; Fleischer’s view on Mustafa Ali, 51f; critical re-appraisal of current approach in Ottoman Studies, 51–56; some (Turkish) treatises, 53

A’raf, ‘limbo’, 21 and fn 70 Archangel(s), see Angel(s) Ashab, villain from the House of Yezid, 78, 171, 220 ‘Ashab al-kahf ‘, see Ehl-i kehf ‘Âshiq, 16 Askalon, role in Holy War, heavenly reward for its citizens, 21 Ass, Dajjal’s on island, 95, 115; shadow of Dajjal’s, 105, 113; role in Old and New Testament, 114; positive and negative connotations in Islam, 114–117; refuses to help prophet, 116; earth holds Dajjal’s, 126f Astarabad, 46 al-Aswad al-’Ansi, adversary of Muhammad, 80 Attema, standard work on Islamic eschatology, 57, 80, passim; 103 Avesta, 97 Âya Sofya, see Hagia Sophia Ayazma, worship at spring or well, 34f Azrail (‘Azra’il), commits suicide, 61, 205; uses trick to take child’s soul, 109, with three archangels, 201, 205; three versions of his death, 226f

 

B

Babil (Babylon), Dajjal comes, 126, 183; exile, 98 Baby, both Dajjal and ‘Îsa speak as, 84 –86, 104; Dajjal’s soldiers kill, 107; born deformed at End of Time, 193; become grey-haired men, 199, 226 Baghdad, destruction, 74f, 203 al-Bal’ami, crucial passages on Dajjal, 97, 118 Balkh, destruction, 73, 201 Banu Asad, 92 Banu Ishaq, take Constantinople by thrice calling of takbir, 40 Banu Magala, Ibn Sayyad plays amongst, 87 Banu Mustaliq, someone from the resembles Dajjal, 84 Baraka, in worshipped tree, 35; in Muhammad’s saliva, 42 Barta’il, Dajjal on island in Java Sea, 95 Barzakh, literature and MSS, 58 Bashkirt, see Heshdek Basmala, as magical charm, 109 fn 134 Basra, destruction, 73, 201, 203; Dajjal at mountain, 104f Bayezid I, captivity and suicide, 11 Bayramiyye order, Ahmed member, ix; founder Haci Bayram Veli, 1; 13; tax exemptions, 23 al-Bayt al-Muqaddas, 228 Beast (‘The ’), ‘from the earth’ is one of ten Signs, 60, 230; emerges from hill al-Safa, 119, 191; of Revelation, 122; with Süleyman’s seal and Musa’s rod, 191, 233; second appearance, 195–197; third appearance, 199; literature, 224 Beast(s), riding, 114ff; halted by God, 126f; ‘Îsa mounts horse, 131, 185; women on horseback, 66, 155, 218 . See also Ass, Bees, Bird, Deer, Fish, Hoopoe, Oxen, Pig Bedreddin, ‘Sheikh’, judge and rebel, 46f; denies Resurrection, 47 Bees, Koran issues sound like humming, 197; hovering resurrected souls produce humming, 209 Bektashi order, founder Qaygusuz Abdal, 32; incorporate old beliefs, 35 Beni Asfar (i.e. the ‘Franks’), 7; attack Rum, 78, 171; sign of the Hour, 153, 161; 220; advance on ‘Amaq, 229 Beni Qantura, people of unbelievers, 73f, 201; from China, 78 Beni Sufyan, destructive tribe, 75 Beyliks, 55

 

Bijan (Bi-can, Bican, Bidjan, Yazıcıoğlu),

Ahmed’s sobriquet ‘the Life-less’, 16; place in Ottoman literature, ix; prefers Turkish, ix, 23, 136; apocalypticism, ix, 39f, 48–51, 135f; family members, 1; printed works, 4; as geographer 6, 9; compiler and translator, 6, 8, 30; poetry, 8, 31; youth in Gelibolu, 12; Bayramiyye Order and contact to Hadji Bayram, 13, 14; link with city of Sofia, 16, 29; readership 25; criticises superstition 32–36; authenticity of works, 31, 36, 39, 131; motivation, 36, 135f; is not the author of Ahmediyye, 38; use of djafr, 43f, 48, 59, 135; literary talent, 86, 102, 118, 137; impression of library, 234–246

 

Bijns, Anna, passage from Referijnen, 137f Bird(s), Simurg, 39 fn 1; snatch people, 94; ‘Îsa breathes life in clay, 108; drop corpses of Yadjudj and Madjudj into the sea, 189.See also Hoopoe Bistami (Bayezid ~), miracle, 146 fn 16 al-Bistami, treatise on djafr used by Ahmed, 43, 48, 56, 59 Boendale, Jan, on eschatology, 70 Book of Forty (or: Thousand) Questions, malhama passage, 74; literary genre, 89 Börklüce Mustafa, rebel leader, 46 Bostanü ‘l-haqa’iq, Ahmed’s prose reworking of his father’s Shemsiyye, 8, 30f; in relation to Ahmed’s year of death, 37 Bousset, W., advocates cautious interpretation of eschatological texts, 45; 52 fn 72 Brüe, J., jeune de langues, translated several chapters of Dürr-i meknun, 3; passage on fornication, 69; on Dajjal’s omniscience, 89, 141 Buddha, omniscient, 90 fn 46 Bukhara, destruction, 73, 201; Mahdi, 173, 231 Bukht al-Nasir, see Nebuchadnezzar Buraq, Muhammad’s fantasy riding-animal, 114f Bursa, Münteha MS, 7; Abu Ishaq Kazeruni’s religious order, 40

 

C

Caesar, see Qaysar Cami’ ül-meknunat, Turkish eschatological pamphlet by Mevlana ‘Îsa, 53f Çelebioglu, edition of Muhammediyye, 1; study on Bijan, 7 Central Asia, peoples of, 79, 100 Cevahirname, only known poem by Bijan, 8, 31 ‘Chaoskampf’, 106 China, 78; Beni Qantura, 78, 171; Mahdi, 175

Constantinople, Fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) is Sign of the End, ix, 40;

might provide clue to year of writing of Dürr-i meknun, 31, 39ff, 136; taken by Banu Ishaq (i.e. Arabs), or Abu Ishaq (Turkish order), 40; descriptions of, 40f; boasts while Jerusalem is destroyed, 42, 229; Bijan starts new tradition, 49ff Crusaders, buildings in Lydda, 131f

 

D

Dabbatü ‘l-arz, see Beast Daggalê, terminology from Pešitta, 79 Dahak (Zahhaq), Islamic Dajjal-figure modelled after Iranian eschatological snake tyrant (reptilian shapeshifter), 96f, 123

 

Dajjal, (Deccal),

and Fall of Constantinople, 40; has thirty precursors (dajjalun), 48, 78–80, 231; is Sign of the Hour, 60, 230; childhood of, 77; removed by angel / bird, 77, 93f, 177; list of 48 elements in Bijan’s story of, 81ff; talks as baby, 84ff, 104; (Jewish) parents named Qatan and Qatane, 84, 175; acts as kahin, 85, 111; call name Saf, 87; alerted by his mother, 87f; knows both question and answer beforehand, 88; attacked by Umar, 90f; encloses Prophet c.s. with wall, 92f, 177; has ties with Isfahan, 97–99, 179, 231; locked away on mountain (Demavend) in Tabaristan, or on island, 95f, 179; supposed influence of Prometheus story, 96; followers are Jews, women and Turkmens, 97–101, 179, 231; advances from Khorasan, 97f; distributes food during famine, 101f, 179; above all deceiver, not tormentor, 102–108; heaven is Hell and vice versa during reign of, 102f, 179; is counter-God, 103, 124f; to Basra, 104f; Muhammad’s adversary, 104; fake resurrections etc. by, 109; blind in one eye, 110f; mark on forehead, 110, 232; cannot enter certain cities, 112, 231; time distorted during reign of, 112f, 181, 231; ‘ulema’ in service of, 112f, 183; rides donkey, 114–117, 179; Dajjal is a giant, 117–119; brays like ass, 116; catches fish, 118f; born from incest or adultery, 119; Sura al-Kahf protects against, 119–122; description by Evliya Çelebi, 119; kills witness Khiḍr, 122–125, 183, 222f; makes covenant with followers, 124f; depicted with two snakes from shoulders, 123f; comes to Ramla, 125f, 183; troops of, 125, 179, 183; immobilised, 126f, 133, 183; comes to Babil, 126, 183; battle with Mahdi, 77, 126f, 183; killed at Lydda by ‘Îsa with spear, 130, 132; killed at Afiq, 131; melts like lead or dissolves like salt in water, 133; goes to Hell, 133, 223; offers amusement and music, 179, 181; driven by wind like a cloud, 231

 

‘Dajjalun’, Yerasimos on, 48; thirty precursors of Dajjal, 78–80; Ibn Sayyad, and Tulayha ibn Huwaylid, perhaps one of the, 91f Damascus, special eschatological role (of Mosque) of, 74, 128f, 201, 232; is head of world says Qatada, 74, 203; symbol of Umayyad rule, 78; Mahdi encounters Dajjal in, 125; ‘Îsa’s descent in, 127–130, 232; Saul converted on road to, 128; White Minaret, 129f; temple to Hadad, and Jupiter, church to John the Baptist, 129; losing Muslims retreat from Aleppo to, 167; Muslims from Istanbul march on, 229 Dan, Antichrist from tribe of, 98 Daniel, 128 Daqa’iqü ‘l-akhbar, eschatological treatise without Signs, 58 Decapitation, 26 and fn 94 (cf. 123 fn 206, and p. 221) Deer, Ahmed opposes veneration of in Thrace, 32–34 Demavend, bird Simurg nests on Mount, 94; Dajjal locked away, 96; 98 Dervish(es), Bijan as, 14ff; rewards for, 18; follow ‘Îsa’s yellow banner, 18; warriors for the faith in Thrace, 19; kills infidel with wooden sword, 133 fn 261 Deval, A.P., jeune de langues, translated part of Dürr-i meknun, 3 fn 19 ‘Devrik cümle’, 24 Dhu ‘l-Suwayqatayn, 75 Div, giant spirits, 116 Diyarbekir, disappears under water, 75 Djabir ibn ‘Abdallah, transmitter of traditions, 230 Djafr, Bijan’s Doomsday calculations based on, 43f, 135; Bistami’s book, 43, 48; (used for Bijan’s Chapters 16 and 17), 43, 46, 59; Mahdi’s coming predicted, 155 Djam, sawn in half by Dahak, 123 Djebrail (Djebra’il), carries of Dajjal, 95 fn 61; removes Koran, 197; arch-angels sole survivors, 201, 205 Djurhumi, evil people, 78f, 171 Doukas, Byzantine historian, 46 Dukhan, prophethood tested with Sura, 86, 89 Duman (Dawman), see Ruman

 

Dürr-i meknun,

first Ottoman encyclopædia, ix; treatise Eshrat-i sa’at is taken from, 2; partial translations by ‘jeunes de langues’, 3; appreciation in literature, 4f, 135; influence on tradition, 9, 43; possible year of writing, 31, 44f; cosmography, 32, 39; offers glimpses of Bijan’s lifetime, 32ff; is silent on events surrounding Constantinople, 40; description of buildings in Constantinople, 40f; important variants in textual tradition, 31, 32 fn 141, 36 fn 157, 41, 45 fn 36, 64, 67, 74, 125, 141 fn 1, 147, 222f, 226; breakdown of Chapter Seventeen, 60; survey of MSS, 141–146; list with 18 chapter titles, 147–149; translation of ‘Chapter 17’, 151–215

 

E

Edinburgh, MS Qiyamet contains interesting material, 99, 224 Eflatun, waters from Spring of destroy Konya, 76, 203 Egypt, Bijan’s work printed, 4; world power, 163; pays ransom to free Muslim P.O.W.s, 167; Franks destroy, 203; is world’s tail, 203 Ehl-i kehf (‘Men of the Cave’), form Mahdi’s guard, 173, 222; perform hadj together with ‘Îsa, 189, 233 Ehl-i keshf, 173 Ejdeha, dragon, monster snake, 96 fn 69 Elijah, merged with Ilyas, 122, 132 Encyclopaedia, Dürr-i meknun first Ottoman, ix; see also Frasheri Enoch, 122 Envarü ‘l-’ashiqin, in print, 4; design and story matter, 25, 27f; year of writing unclear, 26f; strong influence of mysticism, 27; written to show readers God’s path, 36; translated passage from, 228–233 Ephraim Syrus, on Antichrist, 103; on Gog and Magog, 107 Eraslan, K., contribution to Bijan studies, 7

Eschatology,

study of themes, 57ff; survey of major works, 58 fn 5 Eshrat-i sa’at, separate tract is in fact Dürr-i meknun chapter, 2; 143 Evliya Çelebi, reports on fame of Ahmed and Mehmed, 2, 29; uncle gives instructions for modest burial, 70; describes supposed statues of Dajjal and Udj, 119

F

Fada’il, genre on excellence of lands and towns, 20, 76, 112 Fada’il al-Sha’m(-literature), 75; on Sura al-Kahf, 120; on cities Dajjal cannot enter, 122; role in development of Islamic eschatology, 126 ‘al-fana’ al-mutlaq’, annihilation of all creatures, 57 Fars, destruction, 73, 201 Fasting, role in mysticism, 14 Fatiha, people can no longer remember Sura, 197, 225 Fatima, executed, 78, 171; Mahdi from lineage, 175, 230 Fatimids, eschatology, 100 Fazl Allah, founder of Hurufi movement, 46; sceptical about Doomsday, 47, 55f Feridun, fights Dahak, 96f; is giant, 117n fn 180 ‘fettanan-i qabr’, see Munkar and Nakir Fir’awn, see Pharaoh Firishteoglu, uncertain year of death, 27, 238 Fish, both Dajjal and Udj catch and fry, 118f Fleischer, C., on Mustafa Ali and apocalypticism, 51f; on End of Time expectations under Süleyman Kanuni, 53 Flemming, B., pioneer studies on Mevlana ‘Îsa, 53, and on Turkish eschatology and apocalyp-ticism, 55 Franks, destroy Syria, Rum and Egypt, 74, 203; 228 Frasheri, Shemseddin Sami, Ottoman encyclopaedian, 5 Garments, Bijan disapproves of luxury, 16f; wearing silk not allowed, 71f; 157, 159; Dajjal’s Jewish followers dressed in Iranian, 98, 231; description of ‘Îsa’s, 129f, 185; 138

 

G

Garqad, Jew tree, 99, 134 al-Gazali, (pseudo-), 64, 238 Gazi(s), fight Byzantium, 11; Gelibolu city of, 19 Gelibolu, strategic town in Byzantine-Ottoman wars, ix, 10f, 19; Ahmed and Mehmed buried in according to Lami’i, 1; Bijan’s father Salih moves to, 11; religious merits of coastal town, 12, 19f; comparison to Askalon, 21; youth wants to join battle, 21f; tax exemption for Bayramiyye dervishes, 23; geography, 40f and fn 9 Geography, Bijan’s work on, 6, 9; chapters on, 147ff George (Saint George), born in Lydda, slays dragon, 131f Georgia, destroyed by Turks, 74, 203 Geyiklü Baba, adventures with deer, 32f Giant, div in shape of, 116; Dajjal, as well as Feridun, and Antichrist are all, 117; Salsal halted by God, 127. See also Udj Gibb, H., on importance of Mehmed’s Muhammediyye, 5 Gideon, and Midianites, 125 Gilgamesh, epic, 96 fn 68 Gog and Magog, 101. See Yadjudj and Madjudj. Grave, Bijan’s, 1, 8, 38; 17; watery, 20 Bijan’s either in Gelibolu or Sofia, 29; Mehmed’s much visited by pilgrims, 29; interrogation in the, 58f fn 9; pompous reprehensible, 70; resurrection from the, 209 Greece, destruction, 74, 201 Gul, forest demons mounting stags and attacking travellers, 33f Hadad, weather god worshipped in Damascus, 129 Hadj, ‘Men of the Cave’ perform together with ‘Îsa, 189, 233

 

H

Hadji Bayram Veli, mentor and inspiration for Bijan, 1, 13f; founder of Bayramiyye order, 1, 12; meeting with Murad II, 12; year of death, 13 Hagia Sophia (Aya Sofya), Muhammad’s birth causes dome to collapse, 41f; made into mosque, with prophet’s saliva in mortar, 42 ‘Halal wa-haram’, 64 Halperin, D., on development of blind Dajjal tradition, 111 Hama, destruction, 74, 203 Hamadan, destruction, 74, 203 Hammer-Purgstall, J. von, introduces world to Bijan’s œuvre, 3f, 135 al-Haqim, eschatology under caliph, 100 Haramayn, 112 Harish, see Beast Harun bin Yahya, description of Constantinople by, 41 ‘al-Hashr’, the Gathering, 57, 209, 211; Bijan refers readers to specialist literature, 59 Hatima (al-Hutama), name of a hell, 133 Havva, punished by God, 99 Hawiya, a fire (pit) in hell, 211, 227 Heaven, Bijan’s expectations, 18, 20; disobedient youngsters forfeit, 21f; stage in End of Time, 57f; Havva expelled, 99; hell and reversed during Dajjal’s reign, 102f, 179. See also Paradise Hebron, destruction, 74, 203 Hell, stage in End of Time, 57; tortures, 58 and fn 4; heaven and reversed during Dajjal’s reign, 102f, 179; tree Zaqqum, 105; comes to the Gathering, 211; believing sinners temporarily, hypocrites and unbelievers forever in, 213; punishment is not eternal, 227 Heshdek (Bashkirt), possess Russian translation of Muhammediyye, 29 and fn 119 Hija’, Arabic invective poetry, 116 Homosexuality, male and female, 67–70, 218 Hoopoe, 94 al-Hudaybiyya, tree worship at, 35 Hudhud, the bird, 94 Huns, invasion of, 100, eschatological peoples modelled after, 107 Hunyadi, János, Hungarian army commander ‘Yanqô’, 26 Hur, created from buxom light, 20; virgin in paradise, 101; child offered apple, 109 Hurufi, vicissitudes of movement, 46f, 55f Hypocrisy, mortal sin, 135f

 

I

Iblis, 97, 103. See also Satan Ibn al-’Arabi, 14; Mehmed’s commentary on work by, 31; one of Bijan’s sources, 59; on prophet and the Last Hour, 205 Ibn al-Athir, about Mongol invasion, 107f Ibn al-Faqih, Bijan has same passage as, 42; on Damascus mosque, 129 Ibn Kathir, on Constantinople, 41, 229; on true caliphs, 230; 232 Ibn Qatan (Qatun), prophet’s contemporary resembling Dajjal, 84 Ibn Qudama, on pointless war efforts, 22 Ibn Sa’id, see Ibn Sayyad Ibn Sayyad, supposed historical Dajjal, 77; plays near battlement of Banu Magala, 87; was perhaps not Dajjal, 91; modelled after existing concept, 111; blind eye, 111; entered holy cities, 112 Ibrahim, and slave girl Qantura, 79; Nimrud tries to burn, 116; slung away by Nimrud, 127 Idols, fell head first during Muhammad’s birth, 43 fn 25; ‘Îsa smashes, 130, 189 233; increase of at End of Time, 159, 219 Idris, 122 fn 203 Ilyas, ties with immortal Khidr and role among Turks, 23, 122, 132; and Mehmed, 29 Imber, C., sees apocalyptical tendencies in Old-Ottoman period, 46f Immorality, debauchery and paederasty, 37; all kinds of, 62, 67f, 157; law against, 69 Immortality, 122 and fn 203 India, infidels from, 75 Irak, the two are world’s wings, 203; Dajjal between Syria and, 231 Irenaeus, on Antichrist, 103

‘Îsa,

fasting and waking, 16; dervishes follow his yellow banner, 18; his coming is a Sign, 60, 230; speaks in cradle, 85; omniscient, 90; only he can kill Dajjal, 94, 126; breathes life into clay bird, resurrects dead, 108f; immortal, 122 fn 203; descents in Damascus, 127–130, 185, 232; traditional elements in return of, 128f; son of Maryam, 128; kills Dajjal in Lydda, 130–133, 185, 232; as a Muslim hostile towards symbols of Christianity, 130, 187; performs prayer with Mahdi, 130, 233; garments, 130, 185; Beni Asfar are people of, 165; to Jersualem, 185; with believers on Mount Tur, 187, 232; smashes idols, 130, 189, 233; comes to Medina, marriage with Arab woman, 189; buried alongside Umar, 191; visits Kaaba, 233

 

Isaiah, martyr, 123 Isfahan, destruction, 74, 203; ties with Dajjal, 97f, 126, 231 Ishiq, heterodox mendicant monks, 34. See also Torlaq Iskender, foundation of Alexandria and Bijan’s tale of Constantinople, 50; Yadjudj and Madjudj break through Wall of, 187, 223 Israfil, blows trump unexpectedly, 199; blows a second time, 205; sole survivor together with the other archangels, 201, 205; description of trump of, 209 Istanbul, Islamic prophecies of Fall, 39f; Bijan on, 40ff; foundation legend of in Dürr-i meknun, 50; boasts at the cost of Jerusalem, 42, 229; conquered by caliph of God, 173 Istidraj, miracle as trial, 108f Istilahat-i sufiyye, work derived from Bijan’s Münteha, 8

 

J

Jaffa, Perseus slays dragon, 132 Jemen, fire from is Sign, 60; ravaged by disease, 75; [KWL] tribe, 171 Jenks, G., study on Antichrist, 80 Jeremiah, 124 Jerusalem, destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, 42, 229; destroyed by forces of nature, 74, 203; Dajjal cannot enter, 112, 119; ‘Îsa comes to, 131, 185; infidels attack, 167 Jesus, childhood, 85; only can kill Antichrist, 94; mounts ass, 114; Return of, 128 ‘Jeunes de langue(s)’, translate parts of Dürr-i meknun, 3. See also Brüe Jews, Bijan’s work unbiased, 84, 99, 134; Dajjal’s parents are, 84; put questions to prophet, 89f; (from Isfahan) follow Dajjal, 98, 134, 231; garqad is ‘tree of ‘, 99; eschatological tyrant traditions,110 and fn 137; compared to donkeys, 116; 117 fn 179; concept of giants, 117; on Isaiah’s martyrdom, 124 Jihad, 19ff; practical approach must prevail, 22f, 126 Jinn, evil spirits at wells and trees, 32; see also Gul John the Baptist, church in Damascus dedicated to, 129 John Damascene, on Antichrist, 103 Jones, Sir William, 4 Joshua, spies of, 117 Jupiter, planet in alignment with Saturn, 44; temple in Damascus, 129

K

Kaaba (Ka’ba), ‘Îsa visits, 233; destroyed, 73, 201; the Beast surfaces near, 233 Ka’b al-Akhbar, on returning ‘Îsa, 127, 185 Kabul, destroyed from India, 75 ‘Kadhdhabun’, The (Thirty) Liars, 79f Kadiköy, 11 al-Kahf, Sura wards off Dajjal, 119–122; ‘Men of the Cave’, 120f, 173, 222, 233 Kahin, soothsayer, little Dajjal is, 85; Ibn Sayyad is, 111 Kahraman, A., publication of Envarü ‘l-’ashiqin in modern Turkish, 7; 228 fn 1 ‘Karaman Tables’, divination texts and tables in collection of prince of Karaman, 56 Karamat, power to work good miracles, 108 Kashgar, destroyed from India, 75 Kashmir, destroyed from India, 75 Kashshaf, Bijan’s reference to al-Zamakhshari’s book, 59, 191, 233 Katib Çelebi, on Bijan, 2; complaint about superstition, 35 Kazan, Bijan’s work printed, 4 Kazwin, city’s role in Holy War, 21 Kemalpashazade, criticises Year-Thousand thinking, 55 Kerman, 98 Khalil, see Hebron Khalil bin Isma’il, Sheikh Bedreddin’s grandson, author of the latter’s Menaqibname, 46 Khidr, ties with Mehmed, 23, 29; rescuer of people at sea, 23 fn 79; witness against Dajjal and martyrdom, 122, 132, 222f; ties with Ilyas, 122, 132 Khita, see China Khorasan, plague, 75; survivors of massacre flee to, 78, 171; Dajjal’s advance, 96–98, 126; world dominion, 163 al-Khudri, Abu Sa’id, 111, 175 Khusrau, Arch of, 70f, 157; fabulous wealth, 71 Khuz, 98 ‘Kirlangiç oglanlari’, ambulant eye surgeons, 32 fn 141 Kishniç (kishnish), Zaqqum-like poisonous tree, 134 Kitab al-fitan, 126, 219 Kitai (China), destroyed from India, 75 Konya, flooded by ‘Eflatun’s Spring’, 76, 203 Koran, taken into heaven as a Sign, 60, 197; abused as merchandise, 62, 65, 155; exists but in name, 63, 159; Bijan mirrors verses, 63; special expression in, 120; verses have magical properties, 121; Muhammad on hidden meaning of letters, 165; conversation between God and, 197 Kosovo, Battle at, 26 Kufa, 71; Mahdi builds mosque, 173 Kulzum (Qulzum), port of, 231; Kuraysh, twelve caliphs from tribe of, 230; al-Qurtubi, 77fn 3

L

La’ban, Dajjal’s donkey, 116 Lahad, element of grave, 59 fn 9 Lami’i, on Bijan and Mehmed, 1 Lapseki, 10 Latifi, on Bijan and Mehmed, 18, 28 Lietaert Peerbolte, Antichrist study, 80 Lut, warns homosexuals, 68; instead of Ludd, see Lydda Lydda, Dajjal killed at gate, 126; 131; al-Muqaddasi on, 132

M

Mada’in, former Sasanian residence, 71, 163 Magarib al-zaman, 26f, 59 Maghreb, destruction, 74, 201; war with unbelievers, 167

Mahdi, 44;

is a Sign of the Last Hour, 60; Dajjal vs., 77, 126f, 183; protective shade of the, 106; ’ulema’ against, 113; will ride a donkey, 115; army of, 125, 183; performs prayer with ‘Îsa, 130, 233; coming of foretold in djafr, 155; Islam regains strength under, 161; reign of peace by, 173, 221; comes from the West, or Bukhara, 173, 231; dies, 187; is the ‘Sayyid’, 230; has not yet been born, 230f

Mahsher, place of the Gathering, 230 Malhama, analysis of passage of, 73–76, 161, 163 Malkara, 11 Manasseh, has Isaiah cut in half with saw, 123 Manisa, huffaz know the Muhammediyye by heart, 29 Mark, Gospel, 114 Mars, inauspicious planet, 50 Martyr(s), categories of and heavenly rewards for, 19f; Khidr witness and, 122f; Saint George as, 133 Marwa, the Beast emerges from hill near Kaaba, 233 Maryam, ‘Îsa son of, 128 Marzuban-name, 24 Masjid al-Aqsa, 112 al-Mas’udi, similar elements in Bijan’s work, 50 Matthew, Gospel, 114 Maurepas, le Comte de, 3 al-Maymuna, Âdam’s horse, 115 McGinn, B., revision of current approach to apocalypticism, 45, 54 Mecca, devastated, 73, 201; earth swallows army between Medina and, 78, 171; Dajjal cannot enter, 112, 119. See also Kaaba Medina, destruction, 73, 201; Dajjal cannot enter, 112, 119, 231; Ibn Sayyad hails from, 112; seventy thousand Muslim troops from, 167; ‘Îsa marries in, 189 Mehmed II, conquest of Constantinople, 11 Mehmed Yazicioglu, Bijan’s elder brother, 1; praise of, 13; famous author of Muhammediyye, 1, 4f, 19, 29; “Commentary” in use in medreses, 18; legendary generosity, 18; year of death, 28; supposed apocalypticism, 47 Melameti, secret dervish order(s), 17 Ménage, V., study on Bijan, 6f Menaqib-name, genre cultivates archaic language, 25; Khalil bin Isma’il writes a about Sheikh Bedreddin, 46 Menazilü ‘l-sa’irin, stems from Bijan’s Münteha, 8 Merv, destruction, 73, 201 Messiah, Dajjal as false, 123. See also Mahdi Mevlana, order, ties with Konya, 76 Mevlana ‘Îsa, Ottoman judge writes eschatological treatise, 44, 53 Mihrab, Koran contains empty pages, 197, 225 Mikail (Mika’il), one of four remaining arch-angels, 201, 205 Millennium, countdown from 900 H /1591 AD onwards, x–xi; 161; djafr-based calculation of, 43f Mi’raj, Muhammad’s nocturnal heavenly journey, 14 al-Misri, ‘Ali bin ‘Abdallah bin Ahmad, perhaps teacher of Bijan and Mehmed; “Commentary” by, 12 Mizan, ‘the Balance’, 61, 211 Money, worship of, 62, 64f Mongols, impression of, 79; 98; Yadjudj and Madjudj modelled after, 100f; Ibn al-Athir on invasion, 107f Mosque, Hagia Sophia converted to, 42; important role at End of Time for of Umayyads, 74, 78, 128f, 201, 232; Qatada on of Damascus, 74; al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, 112; Udj has head as large as dome of Süleymaniyye, 119; ‘Îsa’s descent on White, 127–130 Mosul, disappears under water, 75

 

Muhammad,

‘Mi’raj’ of, 14; Bijan’s namesake, 16; enables construction of Hagia Sophia, 42; miracles accompany birth, 43; important source in Bijan’s eschatology, 59f; spies on Ibn Sayyad, 87f, 92; magical gestures, 93; escapes thanks to spider’s web, 122; speaks of the Signs, 153ff, 228; on hidden meaning of the Koran’s letters, 165; predicts world’s imminent end, 203; arrived together with the Last Hour, 205 Muhammad b. Maslama, 71 Muhammediyye, famous work by Mehmed Yazici, 4f, 23 (fn 79), 29; great influence on social-religious life, 5; 19; huffaz of Sinop and Manisa, citizens of Ankara, know by heart, 29; Tatars and the Bashkirt use Russian translation, 29 and fn 119; Yerasimos assumes apocalypticism, 47 Mujaddid (müceddid), ‘Renewer of Religion’, 44; Süleyman Kanuni is the, 53 Munkar and Nakir, angels involved in questioning souls (in grave), 58f fn 9 Münteha, work by Bijan, 6; catalogue description of Bursa copy, 7; 30f; Bijan still alive in 1466, 37 al-Muqaddasi, on Lydda, 132 Muqatil, on End of Time, 203 Murad II, meeting with Sheikh Haci Bayram Veli, 12; decapitates king of Hungary, 26; defeats Christians at Varna, 47 Musa (Musa), cannot marry ‘under-age’ girl, 39n; God of punishes Fir’awn, 71; confronts Qarun, 127; ‘the Beast’ carries Rod of, 191 Musaylima, adversary of Muhammad, 80 Mushroom(s), resurrected bodies spring up like, 209 Music / Musical instruments, accompany Dajjal, 179, 181 Muslim, Bijan’s reference to Sahih on ‘thirty dajjalun’, 47f; 242f Mustafa Ali, and Gelibolu, 2, 10; provides information on Bijan, 2; story about generous Mehmed, 18; timar-holder in Bosnia, 21; supposed apocalypticism, 51f

N

Na’ima, criticises eschatological speculation, 55 Najm al-Din Kubra, 16, 243 Naqshbandiyye, religious order, 16 Nebuchadnezzar (Bukht an-Nasir), destroys Jerusalem, 42, 229 Nesimi, 56 New Testament, all chief elements of Jewish ‘False Prophet’ tradition in, 79, 106 Nile, dries up, 203 Nimrud, adversary of God humbled, 71; tries to burn Ibrahim, 116; slings Ibrahim away, 127 ‘Nocturnal heavenly journey’, see Mi’raj Nu’aym ibn Hammad, 126, 219 Nuh (Nuh), Ark of bird-shaped, 75 fn 96; ancestor of Persian dynasty, 163; ancestor of Yadjudj and Madjudj, 187 Number(s), role of ‘70–72’ among Turks, 7; ‘40’, 44f and fn 32; periphrasis (a + b), 120; background to ‘313’, 222; chronogram, 222 Nushirvan, Persian ruler, 163

O

‘Old-Ottoman Chronicles’, influenced by Dürr-i meknun, 9, 43 Orhan Gazi (Gazi), 32 Origenes, on Antichrist, 103 Oxen, 17 fn 41; Şeytan sits between horns of, 165, 220

P

Paradise, mockery of, 105; apple from, 109. See also Heaven Paul, converted on his way to Damascus, 128; heals Aeneas, 131 Perseus, slays dragon at Jaffa, 132 Pešitta, 79 Pétis de la Croix, 3 Pharaoh (Fir’awn), soldiers’ widows become prostitutes, 68; did not drown, 68 fn 62; haughty, 71; punished by God with wind and fire, 76; seeks to kill Musa, 94 Physiognomy, 110f Pig, 117 fn 179; 130 Place of birth, unknown of Salih, 11, and Ahmed Bijan and Mehmed, 12; Dajjal’s village, 175ff Plague, in years 1360 and 1430, ix, 69; punishment for adultery, 67, 161; ravages lands and regions, 73; in Khorasan and Tartary, 75 Plato, 76 Polytheism, idols fall during Muhammad’s birth, 43 fn 25; gravest sin of all, 135f Prayer, true believers busy with nightly, 15f, 193; End of Time characterised by insincere, and very few people perform, 63ff; saved by, 93, 119ff; erased from memory, 197; to God (in Chapter 18), 149 Prisoner(s) of war, description of Constantinople by Muslim, 41; ransom paid to free 167, 220 Prometheus, supposed resemblance to Dajjal (story), 96 Prophet, initiation, 86, 89. See Muhammad Prostitute(s), tax levied on, 68; ætiology of gypsy women as, 68; Madonna-Whore complex, 99; difference to virgin disappearing, 138

Q

Qabil, father of giant Udj, 119 Qahtan, linked to eschatological tyrant Qahtani, 79 Qantura, Ibrahim’s girl slave, 79 Qarun, swallowed by earth, 127 Qatada, on Damascus and bird shape of Nuh’s Ark, 75, 203 Qatan and Qatane, Dajjal’s parents, 84, 175 Qaygusuz Abdal, founder of Bektashi order, miracle with stag, 32 Qaysar (Caesar), 70f, 157, 218 al-Qazwini, Bijan’s abridged translation of his ’Aǧa’ib, 6, 30 Qostantiniyye, 40 fn 9; 228 Quraysh, twelve caliphs from tribe of, 230 al-Qurtubi, 77 fn 3

R

Rab Joseph, 106 al-Rabguzi, Stories of the Prophets, 107 Rafizites, claim that Mahdi has already been born, 231 Ramla, Dajjal’s arrival, 125f; 183; administrative centre for Umayyads, 131 Ravhü ‘l-ervah, work by Bijan, first mentioned by Flügel, 5; becomes ‘ghost title’, 7f, 31 Readership, Bijan’s, 25f ‘Rebels’, 171, 220 Repentance, ‘Gate’ closed, 16, 60, 195 Revelation (Book of), Beast in, 122, 132; on the Return of Christ, 128 ‘Ribat’, garrison-town in Holy War, 20f ‘Riyazet’, asceticism with chastisement, 14 Roboly, ‘jeune de langue(s)’, translated portions of Dürr-i meknun, 3 fn 19 Ruh al-Quds, work by Ibn al-’Arabi, 205 Rum, superstition endemic in ‘Lands of ‘, 34; Beni Asfar attack, 74; world power, 163; Franks destroy, 203; 228 Ruman, angel questioning souls (in grave), 58f fn 9

S

al-Sa’a, ‘The Last Hour’ in eschatological paradigm, 57

Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas, Khusrau’s Arch imitated by Arab general, 71 Saf, nickname for youthful Dajjal, 87 al-Safa, ‘The Beast’ emerges from hill named, 119, 191, 233 ‘Sahib khuruc’, 171, 220 ‘Sahib-qiran’, Lord of the Conjunction, 53 Sahih, work on the Tradition by Muslim, mentions thirty ‘dajjalun’, 48, 231 Sajah, soothsayer, female adversary of Muhammad, 80 Saladin, tears down cathedral, 132 ‘Salb’, way of execution, 221 Salih (Salih), prophet, 115; Bijan’s father, 1; moves to Gelibolu, 11; author of Shemsiyye, 11, 144 fn 12; teaches his sons, 12 Salsal, giant halted by God, 127 Sam, resurrected, 109; forebear of Persian dynasty, 163, 219 Samarkand, destruction, 73, 75, 201 Sanaa, Mahdi’s arrival, 173 Satan, 103; his works, 107; betrays prophet Isaiah, 123. See also Iblis and Şeytan Saturn, great alignment with Jupiter, 44; inauspicious planet, 50 Sayyid, is the Mahdi, 230 Sea, prestige for coastal Gelibolu, 12, 19f; martyr at, 20; Pharaoh did not drown, 68 fn 62; Dajjal’s blood runs to, 185; birds drop corpses of Yadjudj and Madjudj in, 189; Mecca destroyed, bricks thrown into, 201; ‘ of Life’ flows from under God’s Throne, similar to male semen, 207. See also Water Seljuks, 55 Şemsiyye, (Shemsiye), mesnevi by Salih, 11 Seven Sleepers, 120f Shade, Shadow, is reward for the chosen, 105f, 153, 217 Shahnameh, 94, 96 Shaytan, lures Muslims away, 169, 229; appears in human shape to Beni Asfar, 165; name written upside down, 219; was sent as trial to believers, 231 Shaytan(s), evil spirits, 102; assume shape of deceased as trick, 108, 232 ‘Shirk’, polytheism, 135 Siberia, peoples of, 79 ‘Sidrat al-muntaha’, Lotus Tree of Paradise, 105 Silk, garments not allowed, 71f Simurg-i ‘Anqa, fabulous bird 39 fn 1; 94 Sin(s), recalcitrance against one’s parents serious, 21f; list with many, 62f; hypocrisy and polytheism gravest, 134f; 137f Sinop, the huffaz in know Muhammediyye by heart, 29 Sira, Muhammad’s biography, 91 Sirat, bridge in Hell, 18, 61, 211 Skyths, 107 Smoke (‘The ‘), is a Sign, 60, 199, 225, 230f; Sura Dukhan as test, 86, 89, 177 Sofia, Bijan’s ties with city, 16, 29 ‘Stone Books’ (kutub al-ahdjar), 31 ‘Strafgeschichten’, 57; 71 Shu’ayb, prophet on dishonesty in trade, 65 Sufyani, eschatological tyrant, 78, 171; studies on figure of, 78 fn 5 Süleyman (Sulayman), prophet, 94; the Beast wears seal-ring of, 191, 233; Bijan’s grandfather named, 1 Süleyman Kanuni, sultan as ‘Endzeitkaiser’, as well as müceddid and ‘Sahib-qiran’, 53 Sun, rising in West is a Sign, 16, 60, 193, 230; Dajjal and Udj fry fish in its heat, 118; displays all kinds of colours, 195 ‘Sunna’, will be observed again, 154f; no respect for, 230 Superstition, veneration of deer, 32–34; ribbons at wells and trees, 34f Süruri, Mustafa Ali’s mentor, 72 al-Suyuti, opposes End of Time speculations, 55 Syr Darya, floods region, 74, 203 Syria, destruction, 74, 201; special role in Islamic eschatology, 75, 126; destroyed by Franks, 203; Dajjal advances between Irak and, 231

T

Tabaristan, destruction, 74f, 203; Dajjal imprisoned, 95f ‘Tadhakkur al-mawt’ and ‘tafakkur al-mawt’, ‘memento mori’, 16 Tahir, Bursali, 5 Takbir, Jericho and Constantinople taken with chanting thrice, 40, 229 Tamim al-Dari, pivotal source in Dajjal tradition, 95 Tartary, plague-stricken, 75 Tasawwuf, 27 Tashköprüzade, 72 Taylasan, Iranian style garment, 98 Tercüman, Turkish daily publishes Bijan’s Envarü ‘l-’ashiqin, 7 Termez, destruction, 73, 201 Thabit ibn Qays, Muhammad’s secretary, 85 fn 23 Thawban, narrator of Traditions, 229 Theophilos ‘Thomasson’, court astrologer under al-Mahdi calculates time left for Islam, 44 Thomas, Infancy Gospel, 85 Throne (‘The ‘), God’s on the waters, 42; Koran wants to hide under, 197; Sea of Life flows from under, 207 Time, remaining till Last Hour according to Bijan, 44f; critique of current End of Time approach, 46f; distorted during Dajjal’s reign, 112f, 181, 203; duration of Judgement Day, 213 Timur Lenk, campaign in Anatolia, 10f Torlaq, 49. See also Ishiq Trump, sounded thrice, 199, 225f; description, 209 Tulayha ibn Huwaylid, adversary of Muhammad, 80, 92 Tur, ‘Îsa and believers take refuge on Mount, 187, 232; soaring food prices, attack by Yadjudj and Madjudj, 187, 189 Turkmens, follow Dajjal, 98f

U

Ubayy ibn Ka’b al-Ansari, visits Ibn Sayyad with Muhammad, 86 Udj ibn Anak (‘Ûǧ ibn ‘Anaq), giant wants to kill Musa, 94; catches fish, similarities with depictions of Dajjal, 118; pictured by Evliya Çelebi, 119 ‘Ulema’, poor education of Thracian, 36; warning against, 37; bad, 62, 157, 159; seek government jobs and favours, 63, 72f, 159, 218; adultery and ostentatious buildings, 70; in moral decay since 17th century, 72; issue fatwas in Dajjal’s name, 112f; will initially oppose Mahdi, 113, 175, 222 Umar (‘Umar), caliph fells worshipped tree, 35; has palace of Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas burned down, 71; visits young Ibn Sayyad, 84, 86f, 175, 177; unwisely attacks Dajjal with sword, 90; cannot kill Dajjal, 94; informed by Jew that Dajjal will die in Lydda, 132; buried alongside ‘Îsa, 191 Umayyads, mosque in Damascus, 74, 128f, 201, 232; Damascus symbol of rule, 78; confiscate church of John the Baptist, 129; Ramla is administrative centre, 131 Umm Salama, narrates Tradition about Mahdi, 230 Usury, 217

V

Varna, battle of, 26; 47 Venice, constant threat to Gelibolu, 10f

 

W

Wake, role in mysticism, 15, nightly rites, 193 al-Walid, Umayyad caliph confiscates church of John the Baptist, 129 Water, Sea of Life similar to male semen, 207; Yadjudj and Madjudj drink three kinds of, 223; 68 fn 62; 109. See also Sea Wind, Fir’awn punished by fire and, 76; the ‘Red ‘ is Doomsday Sign, 169, 220; God sends red, 229 Wine, drinking of, 62, 71; 104 Witness, confronts Antichrist / Dajjal, 122–125 Wladislaus, king of Hungary, 26; 47 Woman (Women), rule and behave like men, are shameless, fill the streets, drink wine, 62, 66, 155, 157, 218; followers of Dajjal, 98, 100; social order upset by, 66, 100

Y

Yadjudj and Madjudj,

are Sign of the End, 60, 230; modelled after Mongols, 100; beastly behaviour, 106f; go to the Hatima hell, 133; descendants of Nuh, break through Wall (of Iskender), 187; annihilated, 189, 232; of short stature, lop-eared, 223; finish all three kinds of water (and plants) available, 224; advance on Jerusalem, 232

Yafeth, 219 Ya’fur, Muhammad’s donkey, 114, 116 Yanqô bin Madyan, legendary founder of Constantinople, 1; name originates in reading error, 9; 50 Yaqtan, see Qahtan ‘Yawm al-qiyama’, ‘Resurrection Day’, place in eschatological paradigm, 57; both sexes naked, 101; bodies spring up like mushrooms, 209 Yazici, Bijan’s father Salih’s epithet / surname, 1, 11 Yazicioglu (Yazıcıoğlu, Son of Yazici), surname to Ahmed Bijan, and Mehmed, 11 Yerasimos, on Bijan as apocalyptic, 8, 135; on influence of Dürr-i meknun, 9; possible year of writing of Dürr-i meknun, 41; on apocalypticism in Old-Ottoman era, 47–49; 217ff Yezdegird III, last Sasanian ruler, 71 Yezid, 78, 171, 220 Yürüken, nomads notorious for superstition, 35

Z

Zahid (Ascetic), Bijan as model, 14f, 17 Zal, carried off by giant bird, 94 Zaqqum, tree in Hell, 105, 134 Zarifi Baba, Divan, 143 fn 10 Zayn al-’Arab, might have taught Bijan and Mehmed, 12 Zoroastrianism, eschatology, 67 fn 56; Islamic borrowings from, 96f, 123; 117 fn 179 Zubayr ibn al-’Awwam, visits new-born Dajjal, 85

 

(Notice that a few, minor, changes have been made to the text of this Index of Laban Kaptein, Apocalypse and the Antichrist Dajjal in Islam, in order to better adapt it to Internet search functions.)